Eat five to seven servings of fruit and vegetables

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Eat five to seven servings of fruit and vegetables per day. Use fresh or frozen vegetables and fresh fruit or fruit canned injuice rather than high-fructose corn syrupIncreaseintake of fiber and carbohydrates by eating six or more servings of whole-grain products, such as cereals andbreads, per day. Check labels to see that the product really contains whole grainsUse skim or 1% fat milk and nonfat or low-fat yogurt, cheeses, and ice creamsLimit consumption of egg yolks to three or four per week, including those in baked or cooked items. Check store packagesfor listing of eggs or egg yolk as an ingredientEat less than 1500mg of salt (sodium chloride) per dayHave no more than1 alcoholic drink per day if you are a woman and no more than 2 per day if you are a manoEx: 1 drink are 12oz of beer, 4oz of wine, or oz of 80-proof spiritsFactors that affect cardiac output (pg 370)Stroke volumeHeart rateEjection fractionVenous returnResistanceWhat’s the concern with bradycardia?-lack of perfusionWhy is tachycardia a potential problem?-ventricles don’t have a chance to fill back up with bloodCh. 19 - Care of the Patients with Cardiac DisordersHeart FailureEtiologyCoronary Artery disease(carry oxygen rich blood) from atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis (LDL)MI(myocardial infarction) (Infarction: obstruction of blood flow to an organ or region of tissue)Cardiac dysrhythmias (arrhythmias)- Atrial Fib (A-Fib)(AV node cannot respond to the large # of impulses,it conductsimpulses to the ventricle in an erratic manner, resulting in irregular heart rhythm-huge risk of stroke(will be put on anticoagulants)Uncontrolled Hypertension(b/c it has to work so hard for so long & itsthick)Dilation from blood back up of diseased valvesPathophysiologyHeart muscle is unable to pump effectivelyCongestion develops because the heart is unable to move blood asquickly as it shouldHeart muscle is too weak after an MIBlood vessels throughout the body are narrowed & constricted(b/c ofatherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis) (increases resistance=decreased cardiacoutput)Poorly functioning valvesChronic pulmonary disease(COPD, pulmonary HTN, chronic bronchitis, emphysema)Fluid overload
****Resistance in extremities =Heart failure may be classified as right-sided or left-sided HFIn Left-sided HF the heart receives blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the bodyIf the muscle of the left ventricle cannot contract effectively, some of the blood is left in the ventricle and theblood coming into the left ventricle backs up into the pulmonary vessels. This fluid will then leak into the lungtissue producing congestion and eventually pulmonary edemaPulmonary edema = left sided heart failurePulmonary edema physical assessment- crackles in lungs, usually starts at base of lungs—the higher you hear thecrackles, the more fluid there is (as they get better, the lower the crackles are heard) --> pt has SOB(can be severe)Left sided heart failure classic sign:orthopnea(difficulty breathing when laying down) (assess respiratory & cardiac)Right-sided Heart failureOften caused by chronic pulmonary disease or MI

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Term
Winter
Professor
N/A
Tags
right ventricle, left ventricle, pulmonary edema, elevated blood pressure

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