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Invasive procedures are so named because the patients

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Invasive proceduresare so named becausethe patient's body is actually "invaded" in
Disease Diagnosis & Treatment5___________________________________________________________________________Copyright owner Dr. Guo X. Further reproduction of this article prohibited without permissionsome way in order to obtain diagnosticinformation.Suchproceduresinvolveintroducing needles, catheters, or otherinstruments into the patient's body. Suchexaminationofbloodorendoscopicexamination.The risk is greater with invasive procedures,but even some noninvasive procedures arenot completely harmless. A chest x-ray, forexample, exposes the patient to radiation.Therefore, with any diagnostic procedure,the practitioner must balance the possibledisadvantages to the patient against thebenefits that may be derived from theinformation obtained by the procedure.Patients also must be fully informed aboutthe possible risks and benefits so that theycan make informed decisions as to whetheror not to consent to the procedure.Special diagnostic tests and procedures canbe classified in several major categories:1. Clinical laboratory tests2. Imaging3. Tests that measure the electrical activityof the body4. EndoscopyClinical Laboratory TestsBlood tests: When clinicians order bloodtests, the laboratory takes a count of specificcells and molecules and reports these in twocategories:haematology, which providesinformationaboutbloodcellssuchascomplete blood count (CBC), andchemistrysuch as cholesterol and glucose levels, whichfurnishesdataaboutplasma.Theirlaboratory values are frequently altered bydisease. For example, the concentrations ofhemoglobin and the quantity of red cells arereduced in patients with anemia.Immunologic tests: Diagnostic immunologyuses blood tests to aid in the diagnosis ofinfectious diseases (e.g. Hepatitis), immunedisorders (e.g. rheumatoid factors), allergicreactions, and neoplastic diseases.Urinalysis: Urinalysis is one of the mostuseful indicators of health and disease,being especially helpful in the detection ofrenal or metabolic disorders.Pulmonary function tests: They measurethe rate at which air moves in and out ofthelungs.Determinationsoftheconcentration of oxygen and carbon dioxidein the blood also can indicate pulmonaryfunction.Microbiologic tests: detect the presence ofdisease-producingorganismsinurine,blood,faecesorwounds.Theyalsodeterminetheresponsivenessoftheorganisms to antibiotics.Fluid analysis: Through lumbar punctureto obtain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is usedprimarily in diagnosis of cetral nervoussystem diseases. Synovial fluid is obtainedby puncture of a joint cavity. This analysisis performed for diagnosis of infection,crystal-inducedarthritis,synovitisorneoplasm.Cytologicandhistologicexaminations:Abnormal cells can often be identified inthe fluids or secretions that come in contactwith the epithelial surface. This type ofexamination is called a Papanicolaou smear,or simplyPap smear, after the physicianwho developed the procedure. It is widelyused as a screening test for recognizingearly cancer of the uterus and can be usedto detect cancers in other locations as well.

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Term
Fall
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
Magnetic resonance imaging, Genetic disorder

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