Ascription refers to placement beyond the control of

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Ascription – refers to placement beyond the control of the individual (e.g. gender, race, parents)Achievement – refers to placement based on individual meritMost societies have a mixture of achievement and ascriptionoThe major method of legitimationMust be able to convince people that their rankings are proper and rightMust be able to show that these stratification systems are supposedly legitimateTradition/ customs/ religious beliefs are tools of legitimationLegal justification in terms of rights and laws, privilegesoThe predominant form of inequality1) Inequalities in honor, status, or prestige2) Inequalities of economic influence and material rewards3) Inequalities based on military, political, or bureaucratic powerMost societies have all three types of inequality as they tend to be interrelatedoComparative level of inequality in each type of stratification systemPrimitive Communal Societies-Represents the earliest forms of social organizationoLots of hunting and not much use of agricultural methods oTend to be nomadicoAccumulation of material possessions is generally impossible due to less lifestyle, hence goods and food are usually divided equally among tribe members-Primitive communities have chiefs, leaders, etc. who have more influence over the tribe BUT their influence is limited and determined by their ability to perform valuable functions for the tribe-No legal, religious, or systematic ideology are offered as legitimation for any inequalities-In these societies, tradition plays the biggest role the best hunter etc., becomes the leaderSlavery
SOC395 MIDTERM #1 REVIEW SHEET-Emerged soon after human beings settled down into established agricultural communities reached its high point in agrarian civilization-It is an economic relationshipoThe ownership of human beingsoAn economic form of inequality is present-US closed, hereditary slave status-Although slavery was often ascribed status, achievement out of slave status could (sometimes) be obtained-Two primary means of slavery legitimation:oLegaloIdeological e.g. racist beliefs about the inferior qualities of slaves, for slavery that did not surround caste the ideology was that some men were born free while others were slaves by natureCaste-Prominent in India has been around for thousands of years-Indian caste system has four main divisions and many sub divisions-Large number of people are outcasts and are called the “untouchables”oThe untouchables are considered to be lowly, unclean, and to have no place in the stratification system-India’s caste system is closed and divisions are well-defined and clear almost impossible to experience vertical mobility extreme ascription-Systems of social stratification work to stabilize and create acceptance of high degrees of inequality in human societies-Indian caste system is legitimized through religionoHindus believe in reincarnation and karma if you performed good deeds in your past life, then it is believed that

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