30x sweeter than sugar 0 cals No bitter aftertaste 1969: study showed raised risk of bladder tumors in rats that were fed 10 to 1 mixture of cyclamate with saccharin Banned in Canada as food additive, available as tabletop sweetener USA completely bans ° ° Aspartame Discovered accidently by James Schlatter at pharmaceutical company Searle in 1965 Developed as an ulcer drug, but tasted sweet Further developed as artificial sweetener 2 moities: aspartic acid (where name comes from) & methyl ester of phenylalanine Aspartame broken down releases methanol (toxic substance) 200x sweetness of sugar 4 cal/g (same as protein) Searle company marketed aspartame as Equal Warning label for phenylalanine b/c some people suffer from a genetic condition PKU (phenylketonuria) Monsanto bought aspartame, branded it NutraSweet, so now Equal is made with NutraSweet instead of aspartame Not heat stable (cannot be baked/cooked with) Broken down by heat into two parts, not sweet anymore Methanol released Concern? Lethal dose: 20-70K mg
Diet soda: 20 mg Also naturally present in fruit juices Equivalent amount of tomato juice to diet soda: 70 mg of methanol Has been said that for people that would be heavy drinkers of these diet drinks, it is possible that some of these anecdotal effects could be caused by the release of these brain chemicals (not very clear) Effects: headaches, dizziness, mood changes etc Aspartame and brain tumors? Claims that aspartame is linked to an increase in the incidence of brain tumors b/c when aspartame was introduced, there was also an in brain tumors ( falsely assumed causation) Many studies were carried out with aspartame ( probably the most studied of all chemical additives present in food) The acceptable daily intake ( ADI) for aspartame is 40 mg/kg of body weight (slightly different in the US) How is ADI determined? Based on animal studies With animal studies, one determines the NOAEL indicating that, in this particular case, at 4,000 mg/ kg of body weight for test animals, there is no observed adverse effect. To determine what's acceptable on the human scale, the NOAEL is brought down by a factor of 100, so to determine the ADI. The ADI is 40 mg/kg of body weight ADI versus the average daily intake? The average daily intake is 8 times less than the ADI (5mg/kg of body weight) Ex. 72 kilo man would have to drink 20 cans a day to reach the ADI and 1,600 cans a day of soft drinks to reach the NOAEL. Ramazzini Study (2005) carried stated that when rats were fed various amounts of aspartame over their lifetime, the female rat, in this case, it was a female rat, showed a statistically significant increase in various forms of cancer Doses that were fed close to human consumption.
- Spring '11
- pH, Pesticide, E number, Food additive