Marshal field declared that the soot tax he paid to

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Marshal Field declared that the “soot tax” he paid to clean his stores was larger than his real-estate taxes.As women’s clubs and other civic groups embraced the cause, many cities passed smoke-abatement laws. Success proved elusive as railroads and corporations fought back in the courts. America= urban nation in early 20thcentury. By 1920, had passed the 50 percent mark but conditions in cities were sucky and plagued with political corruption.Frederick Law Olmsteadand others campaigned for parks, blvds, and street lights, proposed laws against billboards/electrical wires overhead, etc. Daniel Burnham, architect of Chicago World Fair led successful effort in reviving plan for Washington and developed other city plans that offer a seductive-like city both more efficient and more beautiful. Wanted lakefront parks, museums, wide blvds, blah blah blah.Municipal reform- wanted decent housing and better garbage collection and street cleaning. NY legislature passed laws imposing strict health and safety regulations on tenements in 1911.Public health- They finally discovered that germs cause diseases in the 1880s, omg! So, progressive reformers pushed for improved water and sewer systems, regulations of milk spoilers and food handlers, school medical exams, vaccinations, etc.Infant mortality dropped that’s to all of the efforts and the tb rate fell by nearly half. Campaigns often had targeted the immigrants/poor though and demonized some like “Typhoid Mary”Progressivism and Social ControlProgressives’ belief that they could improve society through research, legislation, and aroused public opinion sprang from their confidence that they knew what was best for other people. Moral Control in the CitiesFor families, amusement parks provided escape from tenements. For female workers they provided an opportunity to spend time with friends, meet young men, and show off new outfits. Oliver and Wilbur Wright’s successful airplane flight and Henry Ford’s Model T in 1908 foretold exciting changes ahead. Myar. Immigrants= Peeps who must be watched: Social ControlReformers ended up imposing their own moral standards by force of law on the immigrants.Ragtimemusic and five-cent movies “ called nickelodeons in immigrant neighborhoods” became highly popular and ironically what made cities more livable was “evil” and were thought of as moral traps, so reformers campaigned to regulate it alloThe nickelodeons eventually began to tell stories, beginning with the Great Train Robbery in 1903oTheda Bara was the first female movie star with her line “kiss me my fool” in A Fool there was (1914)oMovies allowed immigrant youth to briefly escape parental supervision
Ch. 21Fearful of immorality and social disorder, reformers campaigned to regulate amusement parks dance halls,and the movies shown in darkened nickelodeons, which they saw as potential dens of vice.

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