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Lu ậ t s ư ph ả i qua m ộ t k ỳ ki ể m tra

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(Lu t s ư ph i qua m t k ki m tra tr ướ c khi hành ngh ) (2) có ngh ĩ a “h n là”, “ch c ñ ã”: ch m t k ế t lu n logic d a trên nh ng hi n t ượ ng ñ ã x y ra. John's lights are out. He must be asleep . ( ð èn phòng John ñ ã t t. Anh ta ch c ñ ã ng ) The grass is wet. It must be raining .
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S ư u t m và thi ế t k ế b i Ph m Vi t V ũ - 58 – Tr ườ ng ðạ i H c Kinh T ế ð à N ng 14.5 Cách s d ng have to Ng ườ i ta dùng have to thay cho must v i ngh ĩ a b t bu c (ngh ĩ a 1). Quá kh c a nó là had to , t ươ ng lai là will have to . Chú ý r ng have to không ph i là m t tr ñộ ng t nh ư ng nó mang ý ngh ĩ a gi ng nh ư tr ñộ ng t hình thái must . We will have to take an exam next week. George has to call his insurance agent today. ðể di n ñạ t m t ngh ĩ a v trong quá kh , ph i dùng had to ch không ñượ c dùng must. George had to call his insurance agent yesterday. Mrs.Kinsey had to pass an examination before she could practice law. Trong câu h i, have to th ườ ng ñượ c dùng thay cho must ñể h i xem b n thân ng ườ i h i b t bu c ph i làm gì ho c ñể di n ñạ t s b t bu c do khách quan ñ em l i. - Guest: Do I have to leave a deposit? (Tôi có ph i ñặ t c c không) - Receptionist: No, you needn't. But you have to leave your I.D card. I'm sorry but that's the way it is. Trong v ă n nói, ng ườ i ta dùng have got to , c ũ ng có ngh ĩ a nh ư have to . He has got to go to the office tonight. ðặ c bi t, dùng ñể nh n m nh các tr ườ ng h p cá bi t: I have to work everyday except Sunday. But I don't have got to work a full day on Saturday. 15. Dùng tr ñộ ng t ñể di n ñạ t tình hu ng quá kh (modal + perfective) 15.1 Could, may, might + have + P 2 = có l ñ ã Di n ñạ t m t kh n ă ng có th ñ ã x y ra quá kh song ng ườ i nói không dám ch c. It may have rained last night, but I'm not sure. He could have forgotten the ticket for the concert last night. I didn't hear the telephone ring, I might have been sleeping at that time. The cause of death could have been bacteria. John migh have gone to the movies yesterday. 15.2 Should have + P 2 = L ra ph i, l ra nên Ch m t vi c l ra ñ ã ph i x y ra trong quá kh nh ư ng vì lí do nào ñ ó l i không x y ra. Maria shouldn't have called John last night. (She did call him) John should have gone to the post office this morning.
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