Tobacco cessation fall 2011 Instructor (1)_ For use in lecture (3)

Nicotine is the drug in tobacco that causes addiction

Info icon This preview shows pages 14–23. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
addicting. Nicotine is the drug in tobacco that causes  addiction. The pharmacologic and behavioral processes  that determine tobacco addiction are similar to  those that determine addiction to drugs such as  heroin and cocaine. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1988). The Health Consequences of Smoking: Nicotine Addiction. A Report of the Surgeon General .
Image of page 14

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
  NICOTINE PHARMACOLOGY  and PRINCIPLES of ADDICTION N CH 3 N H Pyridine ring Pyrrolidine ring Nicotiana tabacum   Natural liquid alkaloid Colorless, volatile base pK = 8.0
Image of page 15
NICOTINE  PHARMACODYNAMICS Nicotine binds to receptors  in the brain and other  sites in the body. Other: Neuromuscular junction Sensory receptors Other organs Central nervous system Exocrine glands Adrenal medulla Peripheral nervous system Gastrointestinal system Cardiovascular system Nicotine has predominantly stimulant effects.
Image of page 16

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
NICOTINE  PHARMACODYNAMICS  (cont’d) Central nervous system Pleasure Arousal, enhanced vigilance Improved task performance Anxiety relief Other Appetite suppression Increased metabolic rate Skeletal muscle relaxation Cardiovascular system  Heart rate  Cardiac output  Blood pressure Coronary vasoconstriction Cutaneous vasoconstriction
Image of page 17
NEUROCHEMICAL and RELATED  EFFECTS of NICOTINE Dopamine Norepinephrine Acetylcholine Glutamate Serotonin β -Endorphin GABA N I C O T I N E Pleasure, appetite suppression Arousal, appetite suppression Arousal, cognitive enhancement Learning, memory enhancement Mood modulation, appetite suppression Reduction of anxiety and tension Reduction of anxiety and tension Benowitz. (2008). Clin Pharmacol Ther 83:531–541.
Image of page 18

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
WHAT IS ADDICTION? ”Compulsive drug use, without  medical purpose, in the face of  negative consequences” Alan I. Leshner, Ph.D. Former Director, National Institute on Drug Abuse National Institutes of Health
Image of page 19
BIOLOGY of NICOTINE  ADDICTION: ROLE of DOPAMINE Nicotine stimulates  dopamine release Repeat administration Tolerance   develops Discontinuation leads to withdrawal symptoms. Pleasurable feelings Nicotine addiction  is  not  just a bad habit. Benowitz. (2008). Clin Pharmacol Ther 83:531–541.
Image of page 20

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION of  NICOTINE: EFFECTS on the BRAIN Perry et al. (1999). J Pharmacol Exp Ther 289:1545–1552. Nonsmoker Smoker Human smokers have increased nicotine  receptors in the prefrontal cortex. High Low Image courtesy of George Washington University / Dr. David C. Perry
Image of page 21
Irritability/frustration/anger Anxiety Difficulty concentrating Restlessness/impatience Depressed mood/depression Insomnia Impaired performance Increased appetite/weight gain Cravings NICOTINE  PHARMACODYNAMICS:  WITHDRAWAL EFFECTS Hughes. (2007). Nicotine Tob Res 9:315–327.
Image of page 22

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 23
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern