Slippery slope 4 straw man jeanne responds as if

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3. Slippery slope ▲4. Straw man (Jeanne responds as if Carlos wanted to sleep until noon). Can also be analyzed as false dilemma. (“Either we get up right now, at 4:00 a.m., or we sleep until noon.”) 5. Slippery slope IM – 6&7 | 5
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6. This is an example of a positive circumstantial ad hominem. We know we don’t list this officially, but it is mentioned under that heading in the chapter. Sharp readers will figure this out. Otherwise, this can be characterized quite accurately as a red herring, which is discussed in the previous chapter. ▲7. This begs the question. The conclusion merely restates the premise. 8. Inconsistency ad hominem 9. Straw man ▲10. False dilemma 11. Inconsistency ad hominem 12. Straw man; resist the temptation to call it slippery slope ▲13. Misplaced burden of proof 14. Begging the question 15. Although we like inconsistency ad hominem, circumstantial ad hominem is a reasonable answer too. 16. False dilemma 17. This is best seen as a false dilemma, but it is a clever one. Letterman is presented with a question that seems to call for a “yes” or “no” answer. But either of them may misrepresent his position, as follows: A “yes” answer would indicate that he supports the war effort and wants to see it to a successful conclusion. But a “no” answer indicates that he wants the United States to lose the war. If a person wished that the United States simply withdraw from Iraq, neither of the two answers would be an appropriate response. Thus the yes/no alternatives are a false dilemma. You can also see this as a false dilemma hiding inside a loaded question. Exercise 7-5 ▲1. This is an example of burden of proof. Yes, it is indeed slightly different from the varieties explained in the text, and here’s what’s going on: The speaker is requiring proof of a sort that cannot be obtained —actually seeing smoke cause a cancer. So he or she is guilty of one type of “inappropriate burden of proof.” 2. Begging the question, with a hint of misplaced burden of proof 3. False dilemma ▲4. This is false dilemma because Sugarman’s alternatives are certainly not the only ones. Notice that he is giving no argument against the Chicago study; he is simply using the false dilemma to deny the study’s conclusion. 5. Slippery slope. The reference to General Stuart looks like an appeal to authority, but is really a proof surrogate (see Chapter 5), since we don’t really know what the General would say. 6. This passage has one foot in slippery slope and the other in straw man. They are dished up with a helping of hyperbole. ▲7. Inconsistency ad hominem IM – 6&7 | 6
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8. Straw man 9. False dilemma ▲10. This is a case of misplaced burden of proof. The speaker maintains that the government is violating the law. The burden of proof therefore falls on the speaker to justify his or her opinion. Instead of doing that, he or she acts as if the fact that officials haven’t disproved the claim is proof that the claim is true.
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