Within group heritability and between group

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Within-group heritability and between-group heritability o One study compared children of African American soldiers and Caucasian German mothers with children of Caucasian American soldiers and Caucasian German mothers, and their IQs were found to be the same o White European ancestry among African Americans does not predict higher IQ o African American children that are cross-racially adopted show IQs above average Caucasian children o Overall, poverty may be source of IQ differences rather than genetics Stereotype Threat Fear that we may confirm a negative group stereotype Self-fulfilling prophecy – those who are anxious about confirming a negative stereotype actually increase their likelihood of doing so
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Another environmental factor that may affect how individuals perform and achieve Can impair performance on IQ and standardized tests like the SAT Chapter 10 – Human Development Developmental psychology – the study of how behavior changes over time Post hoc fallacy – false assumption that because one event occurred before another event, it must have caused that event Children’s development influences their experiences, but their experiences are also influenced by their development ( bidirectional influences ) o Development  Experiences Keeping an Eye on Cohort Effects Cross-sectional design – examines people of different ages at a single time point Longitudinal design – tracks the development of the same group of people over time A lot of times people combine these two together The Influence of Early Experience No doubt that early life experiences can sometimes shape later development in powerful ways Myths: o Infant determinism – just because you see them seeming to be like something as an infant, doesn’t mean going to become that way o Childhood fragility Nature and nurture – interact! o Gene-Environment Interaction – the impact of genes depends on the environment in which the behavior develops o Nature via Nurture – genetic predispositions can drive us to select and create particular environments Social and Moral Development Stranger anxiety Attachment – bond between infant & caregiver Imprinting – phenomenon observed in birds in which babies begin to follow around and attach themselves to any large moving object in the vicinity during the hours immediately after hatching (e.g. Konrad Lorenz’s geese) Harlow – did the monkey study with the two fake moms, one had milk, the other had a soft blanket o Studied infant rhesus monkeys separated from mother after birth o Contact comfort – positive emotions afforded by touch Attachment Ainsworth’s “Strange Situation” - Laboratory procedure to evaluate infant attachment in the US Mom and infant would hang out in a room, some stranger would come into room, mom leaves child with stranger in room, how does the child react when she leaves? How does the child react when she comes back?
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  • Summer '07
  • Leader
  • Psychology, Intelligence quotient, Sir Francis Galton, Charles Spearman

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