PSYCH410 Exam III Study Guide .docx

O the original purpose of the drug that produces

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o The original purpose of the drug that produces positive/pleasurable effects begins to decrease as use becomes more frequent, withdrawal symptoms become worse over time and the desire to avoid those symptoms becomes greater as well eventually causing negative effects from the drug Heightened mood becomes lower and lower over time until it is a negative mood and the person is addicted How does the classical conditioning of withdrawal effects help sustain addiction? o The withdrawal effects (negative effects) become classically conditioned The time period between preparing the drug/seeing needles and injecting the drug creates an increased “need” for the drug; the more often our body experiences this process, the more conditioned our bodies will be to needing the drug every time we see needles or the drug because of the known withdrawal/negative effects and what they do to our body What is the purpose of the reward pathway in the brain? How do drugs of abuse alter this pathway with frequent use? o Purpose: reward pathway is the brain’s pleasure center, regulates natural rewards like food/music o Abused drugs increase dopamine; artificially intense stimulation of the reward center eliminates natural rewards (such as food, music, art) Dopamine increased become extremely exaggerated, communication to the brain is altered Natural rewards cannot compete with the effects of drugs of abuse o “cold” vs. “hot” executive functions Become altered and weakened o Addiction shifts the entire reward system toward more immediate, concrete rewards (aka getting high) What are the key components for effective treatment of addictions? o Combined programs that use multiple treatment approaches appear to work best o Detoxification o Drugs to reduce physiological addiction o Cognitive/emotional split o Applying learning principles (self-control training, counterconditioning) o Providing social supports o Prevention programs If one relapses back into drug use, does this decrease their chance of success the next time he/she pursues treatment? o NO! o Alcohol: ~65% success rate over short-term ~20% “cure” rate over long-term o Best predictor of success = number of attempts What personality factors are related to increased risk for addiction? o Negative mood states/”neurosis” trait (anxiety, depression, anger) o Thrill/arousal seeking, impulsivity, lower frustration tolerance 2
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How do beliefs shape alcohol use and risk for addiction? o Can overpower the actual effects of alcohol o Mild vs. moderate exposure o People’s behavior changes consistently with their beliefs (regardless of if they were actually being served the alcoholic drinks or the non-alcoholic drinks) o Some beliefs can increase risk for problematic use “celebrations should always include alcohol” “good times are always better with alcohol” “alcohol makes me more attractive/interesting to others” “alcohol improves my sexual functioning” How do social and cultural factors influence addiction?
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