an approach to research that removes the researcher from the centre of power and involves the community members and research participants in the design, implementation, and interpretation of the research process o External adult: a technique for establishing dependability and confirmability in qualitative research wherein researchers outside of the study examine qualitative data to see if they would have come to the same results as the original researcher o Trustworthiness: an alternative set of criteria by which to assess the validity and reliability of qualitative research o Confirmability: a component of establishing trustworthiness that relates to the extent to which the findings of a qualitative study are value free o Guilty knowledge: when a researcher in field research learns of illegal, unethical, or immoral actions by the people in the field site that is not widely known Chapter 7: Experimental Research Research Questions Appropriate for an Experiment The issue of an appropriate technique o Which technique best fits my research question? o Can develop judgement from reading research reports, understanding the strengths and weaknesses of different techniques, and gaining practical experience Research questions for experimental research o Should confront ethical and practical limitations in intervening in human affairs for research purposes Random Assignment Why randomly assign?
o Random assignment: dividing subjects into groups at the beginning of experimental research using a random process, so the experimenter can treat the groups as equivalent o Random means unplanned, haphazard or accidental, but it has a special meaning in mathematics o Random means a case has an exactly equal chance of ending up in one or the other group o Unbiased says that the probability of selecting a case can be mathematical determined and, in the long run, the groups will be identical o When a researcher randomly assigns, he or she sorts a collection of cases into two or more groups using a random process o In random sampling, the researcher selects a smaller subset of cases from a larger pool o Ideally, a researcher will both randomly sample and assign How to randomly assign o A researcher begins with a collection of cases and then divides it into two or more groups by a random process, such as asking people to count off, tossing a coin, or rolling a dice Matching versus random assignment o Matching is an alternative to random assignment, but infrequently used o Matching presents a problem: what are the relevant characteristics to match on, and can one locate exact matches? Experimental Design Logic The language of experiments o Subjects: the cases or people used in research projects and on whom variables are measured Parts of the experiment 1. Treatment or independent variable: what the independent variable in experimental research is called.
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