NE101 Lecture Notes

Limbic system cortex important to alzheimers

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limbic system cortex important to Alzheimer's Monoamines Catecholamines (dopamine & norepinephrine – ionotropic) rely on tyrosine and enzymes convert it (series of steps) Norepinephrine one step past dopamine 2 receptor types alpha & beta broad, sparse distribution in CNS / crucial role in PNS Dopamine 5 receptor types 3 pathways: nigrostriatal mesolimbic (addiction) mesocrotical Serotonin (both ionotropic & metabotropic)
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September 24, 2012: Research Methods in Neuroscience 1. How do we map the anatomical structure and pathways of the brain? 2. How do we identify the cellular processes that support behavior and memory? 3. How do we record neural activity that supports cognition and behavior? How do we map the anatomical structure and pathways of the brain? Visualizing neurons stains Nissl (cell body) stain Fiber (axon) stain Tracing pathways in the brain Staining method Use of proteins (PHA-L) conducted from cell body Show what parts of the nervous system the injection site is connected with depending on the stain that shows up elsewhere Cholinergic pathways Golgi stain Allows you to stain the entire membrane Slowly getting replaced by “brainbow” causes neurons to express different colors on a random basis genetic How do we link synaptic plasticity to memory? Hebb's rule: When an axon of cell A is near enough to excite cell B and repeatedly or persistently takes part in firing it, some growth process or metabolic change takes place in one or both cells such that A's efficiency, as one of the cells firing B, is observed. Presynaptic activation + postsynaptic depolarization → increase in synaptic efficacy Long-term potentiation Synaptic properties for induction of LTP (a) Normal synapse transmission equal amounts of input as output (b) Depolarization at synapse during LTP more input than output Does preventing LTP (with NMDA receptor blocker) affect memory? Behavioral methods Does LTP = memory? LTP is the basis of memory How do we link neural activity to functions of the brain? Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) neural activity increases → energy consumption → increased blood flow → oxygen exchange → altered hemoglobin response to magnetic pulse fMRI design depends critically on “subtraction of activations” Activation during memory task – Activation during control task = Memory related activity ex. listen to some time specific, personal memories – listen to same words but in a factual story Electroencephalography (EEG) changes in the oscillations of the neurons shows us about common brain state Tetrodes can isolate individual neurons in a large population
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October 9, 2012: The Evolution of Nervous Systems (cont.) In the last billion years – all the proteins that make up synapses already exists, it's just a matter of duplication Most synaptic proteins are ancient and predate functioning nervous systems!
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