dards and Accents) comprise English English, Welsh English, Scottish Eng-lish and Northern Ireland English (the corresponding abbreviations are EE, WE, ScE. , NIE).
------------------164 165 Chapter VI. Social and Territorial Varieties of English Table 15 British English Accents English English Scottish English ,----= ._-f-.···-----··~I---------..-. NorthernWelsh Educated IrelandRegionalEnglishSouthern Northern Scottish EnglishvarietiesEnglish I. Southern 1. Northern 1-----------------1-----------2. EastAnglia 2. Yorkshire 3. South West 3. North-\\est 4. \\est Midlands --------'-----------this chapter we are going to look in greater detail at the Received Pronunciation (RP) and regional non-RP accents of England. Roughly speaking the non-RP accents of England may be grouped like this: I. Southern accents: 1) Southern accents (Greater London, Cockney, Surray, Kent, Essex, Hertfordshire, Buckinghamshire); 2) East Anglia accents (Lincolnshire, Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridgeshire, Bedfordshire, Northamptonshire, Leicestershire); 3) South-West accents (G10ucestershire, Avon, Somerset, WIltshire). 2. Northern and Midland accents: 1) Northern accents (Northumberland, Durham); 2) Yorkshire accents; 3) North-West accents (Lancashire, Cheshire); 4) West Mjdland (Birmingham, Wolverhampton). 6.3.2. Received Pronunciation Ithas long been believed that RP is a social marker, a prestige accent of an Englishman. In the nineteenth century "received" was understood in the sense of "accepted in the best society". The speech of the aristocracy and the court phonetically was that of the London area. Then it lost its local characteristics and was finally associated with ruling class accent, often re-ferred to as "King's English". It was also the accent taught and spoken at public schools. WIth the spread ofeducation cultured people not belonging to the upper classes were eager to modify their accent in the direction of social standards. 6.3. English-based Pronunciation Standards of English We can say that RP is a genuinely region less accent within Britain: you cannot say which area ofBritain the speakers ofRP come from, which is not the case for any other type of British accents. It is fair to mention, however, that only 3-5% ofthe population of Eng-land speak RP. According to British phoneticians (Ch. Barber, 1964; A. Gimson, 1981; A. Hughes and P. Trudgill, 1980) RP is not homogeneous. A. Gimson suggests that it is convenient to distinguish three main types within it: "the conservative RP forms, used by the older generation, and, traditionally, by certain professions or social groups; the general RP forms, most commonly in use and typified by the pronunciation adopted by the BBC, and the advanced RP forms, mainly used by young people of exclu-sive social groups -mostly ofthe upper classes, but also for prestige value in certain professional circles" (Gimson, 1981: 88). In the last edition of ''An Introduction to the Pronunciation ofEnglish" by A. C. Gimson, revised by Alan Cruttenden (2001) a new classification of RP types is given: General RP Refined RP Regional RP By "Regional RP" they mean standard pronunCiation norm in particu-geographical regions which are commonly close to the national RP but reflect regional peCUliarities.