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Humans don’t have instincts to take the place of languageWithout is there is no other form of communicationPeople w/o language live in internal silence -Freud and the Psychoanalytic PerspectiveoFreud founded psychoanalysis - a technique for treating emotional problems through long term exploration of the subconscious mind.Id: Freud’s term for our inborn basic drives. (food, safety, sex, and etc.)Ego: Freud’s term for a balancing force between id and demands of society.Superego: Freud’s term for the conscience; the internalized norms and values of our social groups.-The differences between the “I” and “me” oI” (viewer) – Unpredictable, spontaneous, self-awareness “I” am doing the viewing of “Me” o“Me” (object) – Socially derived representation of society, conformity “Me” is the social creature that “I” am viewingPredictabilityConformity
Past “I’s”“Me” is the social creature that “I” am viewing-The looking-glass self oCharles Horton Kooley; our self is our interpretation of how others see usoWe are socially created by interactions with others oDevelop Self - Evaluate ourselves according to how we imagine others have judged us.-The “nature” vs. “nurture” argument oNature- hereditary.oNurturesocial interaction, environment oSociobiology- Both nature and nurture-Cognitive development in social learning as outlined by Piageto1. Sensorimotor Stage (age 0 -2) - Reflex activity leading to understanding of unintentional responses. (Object Permanence and Stranger Anxiety)o2. Pre-Operational Stage(age 2-7) - Verbalization representation moves from egoistic to social, language, symbols, imagination. (Pretend Play, Egocentrism, Language Development)o3. Concrete Operational Stage(age 7 - 12) - Evidence for organized logical thought, understand time, space, numbers, size, speed. (Conservation and Mathematical Transformations)o4. Formal Operational Stage(age 12 +) - Concrete logical thought moves into ability for abstract, formal logic. (abstract problems and concepts).-Agents of socialization oPeople that affect our self-concept, attitudes, behaviors or other groups Primary: Parents, Peers, Schools Other agents: tech, media, religion, news-Gender and Emotional SocializationoGender Socialization: Learning society’s “gender map” the paths in life set out forus because we are male or female.oEmotional Socialization: Socialization influences not only how we express our emotions but also what emotions we feel. Everyone experiences six basic emotions: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. -Mead’s theory on “language” and “role taking”oMead suggested Role Taking
Because we have language and can think, we carry on silent conversationsWe think something to ourselves and respond internally to it We talk to ourselves and answer ourselvesoPre-play Stage: Child learns to associate certain meanings to certain types of cries. first egoistic and reflexive, then begin to understand that we are social beings through interaction.oPlay Stage: Increase in mental capacity that facilitates learning language.