5 years 5 years 4 c d 10 years 6 months cooperation c

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5 years / 5 years 4. C, D = 10 years / 6 months Cooperation (C, C) would lead to a better outcome than mutual defection (D, D) Rational actors choose individual, rational calculation, which leads to a suboptimal outcome (D,D) What helps encourage cooperation? iteration: interact often, cooperate more if have to see them again and again compared to one time; you forego immediate gains now to preserve the relationship information: know what to say before means better cooperation Bargaining (Still talking about actors)
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zero-sum A gains what B loses reversion outcome (if can’t reach agreement and the reversion outcome is same or worse then more likely to reach agreement) i.e. power affect bargaining (if don’t make a deal and you’ll be worse off; or don’t bargain because person doesn’t care) coercion (State A and B don’t agree, state B doesn’t agree, State A uses forces i.e. state A sends military) attractive outside option (State A can walk away from bargaining table more easily because has upper hand, yet State B needs to come to terms because maybe they need a defensive ally) agenda setting (State A can give money and decide what you can and cannot do then talk about how much you get after) Institutions: key concept in political science not synonymous with organizations defined as “set of rules, known and shared by the community, that structure political interactions in specific ways” formal or informal “rules of the game” coordinate behavior facilitate cooperation International Institutions: set standards of behavior help actors verify compliance reduce costs of joint decision making help resolve disputes BUT institutions do not benefit all actors equally Friday 10/2 Realism state is dominant actor states fundamentally seek security/power states interests generally conflict mostly bargaining, coercion always possible institutions don’t matter much, reflect power
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Liberalism: many types of actors are important no single interest dominates, though wealth is a common goal cooperation often possible conflict happens when actors fail to recognize common interests institutions important, facilitate cooperation Constructivism many types of actors are important actor’s interests are influenced by culture, identity, and ideas interactions can transform actor’s interests institutions shape identities and action set norms of appropriate behavior War “An event involving the organized use of military force by at least two parties that satisfies some minimum threshold of severity” 1,000 + battle deaths Interstate War = “A war in which the main participants are states Causes of War States fight over: territory other state’s national politics other state’s regime types These do not cause war by themselves interstate war is actually very *rare* costs of war are tremendous
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