ANP Atrial Natriuretic Peptide- Decreases Na re-absorption, increases excretion of Na in urine (natriuresis), increases urine output (diuresis), and decreases blood volume and decrease BP. 84.What is the % amount of fluid vs. solid material in human body?Males: 60% water 40% wasteFemales: 50% water 50% waste85.Give definitions of the following terms: dehydration, hyperhydration, perspiration, insensible lossof water, diuresis, natriuresis, acidosis, alkalosis, osmosis, simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, primary active transport and secondary active transport. Dehydration- when the loss of body fluids (water) surpasses the amount taken inHyperhydration- water intoxication, overhydration Perspiration- Sweating insensible loss of water:Diabetes insipidus Diuresis: an elevated urine flow rate, which will reduce blood volume. Natriuresis:elevated urinary excretion of NA+ and CL- followed by water excretion that will decrease blood volume.Acidosis-caused by an increase of acid built up in the blood. Can occur by the loss of bicarbonate from the blood (metabolic acidosis) or from an increase of carbon dioxide in the blood (respiratory acidosis)Alkalosis- caused by increase of pH in the blood, based on the increase or decrease of carbon dioxide, and bicarbonate ions in the blood Osmosis- passing of solvent through semipermeable membrane from low to high concentration solution simple diffusion-passes through the membrane without any problems
Facilitated diffusion- passing of molecules using no energy, but following the concentration gradient( high to low). Primary active transport:energy is used directly from ATP. (sodium potassium pump) Secondary active transport: energy that is stored by the concentration gradient of ions is used (movement of glucose in PCT)86.What is the normal pH of the blood?7.35- 7.4587.How do lungs and kidney play a role in pH regulation of the blood?Lungs help by increasing breathing rate or decreasing depending on the body's situation (alkalosis/acidosis). The kidneys filter 1200 ml/min of blood, 650 ml of plasma. All plasma is filtered 60x a day. The kidneys help by secreting acids or bases into blood to regulate the pH balance of blood.88.Explain the difference between metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis (do the same comparison for alkalosis) – which ions in the blood would be at different concentration in each condition?Respiratory Acidosis CO2 is high. Ph is low- hypoventilation is occurringRespiratory Alkalosis CO2 is low. Ph is high- hyperventilation is occurringMetabolic Acidosis CO2 is low, pH is low- will lead to hyperventilation, excessive loss of bicarbonate in bloodMetabolic Alkalosis CO2 is high. pH is high- will lead to hypoventilationReproductive system and development89.Explain the structure of reproductive systems in male and female (organs, ducts and cells).