It is important to note that single foreign national

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strategies. It is important to note that single foreign national crew (F1) is a strategy that spreads very quickly, and in contrast to ‘GRF1’ ‘GRF’ influences adversely the Greek seagoing manpower. The following table 7 presents in more detail the correlation of implemented manning strategy and choice of internal and external outsourcing. Table 7. Manning strategies and outsourcing decision Internal Outsourcing External Outsourcing Manning strategy Subsidiary GR Subsidiary Abroad Agent GR Agent Abroad GRF1 2 5 6 12 GRF 1 3 3 6 F1 0 4 2 7 F 0 0 2 0 Other: F2 0 1 0 2 Note: It was allowed to give more than one answer. Analysis of summaries of separate variables is presented in values. Manning strategy ‘GR1’ is excluded because it is not applicable. Results show that in the case of a single nationality crew, Greeks are totally excluded and in order to find seamen, mostly an independent agent is contacted, and less a subsidiary is created. Also, in the case of a crew mix with Greeks and foreigners of one or more nationalities external outsourcing and independent manning agents are mostly preferred. In sum, and regarding the confirmation of the basic initial hypotheses, ship operators outsource crewing activities that relate mostly foreign seafarers, because of their manning strategy and the world trend to hire low-cost seafarers. Moreover, ship operators outsource vertically HR crewing activities, which means that more often recruitment, incorporation and training services are outsourced. Size does not affect the decision to outsource, it affects however the type of outsourcing that is chosen. All respondents, except one small-sized company, choose to outsource HR activities. It is important to note that single foreign national crew (F1) is a strategy that spreads very quickly the last years. In this case, and in order to find seamen, the most common practice is to contact an independent agent, rather than create an affiliated company. 16
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This feature, in combination with the related results per fleet size, conclude to the fact that the hypothesis that size affects pro rata the decision to out-outsource HR activities, is not confirmed. Also, in all cases of multinational crew, and despite the fleet size, independent agents are mostly preferred. However, large-sized companies assure a greater advantage, because they have the economic ability to operate personnel departments and manning agencies in a worldwide basis. Finally, the hypothesis that even when a Greek owned shipping company outsources crew management, it retains the strategic control of the activity, has been confirmed. In most of the cases the most important decision, that of crew synthesis’ choice, remains with the company. 7. CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH The results of this survey offered a wide field for discussion on the strategic decisions of shipping companies about their seagoing personnel. This study identified current outsourcing strategy trends and practices for a characteristic sample of Greek- owned shipping companies. This is a first attempt to outline the strategic decision of
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  • Fall '16
  • carol
  • Management, Subsidiary, Manning

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