R8. International Negotiating Styles - Foster - ch 8 pp 264 - 293.pdf

Of an indi vidual in a particularly circumscribed

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of an indi- vidual in a particularly circumscribed position within a complex hierar- chy, and they usually must faH in line with the goals of the "man at the top." Chinese decision making. however. can be a unique situation, because ofthe faet in part that there have developed over the millennia in China several parallel bureaucracies: the current government bureaucracy and the local, historicalIy determined bureaucracies. The whole pur- pose of the bureaucracy in China is to diffuse decision making so ihat responsibility is difficult to locate. Nobody wants to be left holding the bago Ultimately this is done to shield powerful figures from accountabil~ ity; however. this can result in interminable delays in getting decisions made. Somedmes the de!ays are íntentionally designed to stall, 01' pass on responsibility. Sometimes, however, the bureaucracies are so com- plex that your opposite number in China might merely be tryíng to 10- cate those responsible for or those having the necessary information to help in making a decision to move the project along. Remember, in China you are dealing with a culture with a history of dynastic, bureau~ cratk rule that reaches back through the centuries. 22 The Nature of Agreements Finally, we need to note that what wins the day in one culture may truIy blow you away in another. That is, in the United States, fol' example; we beIieve that if we present rational, detailed information, the other side will make its decisions basedjust on that. However, other cultures may use other criteria, such as emotional appeals, ethnic loyalty, or merely just a good feeling about you, as the real reasons for deciding yea or nay. Clearly, then, along with empírical reason, we must realize that the showing of emotions, intuition, ideological agreement, and even tradi- dona! precedents may aH present other criteria for agreement. In Mexico. for example, a clear, rational argument wiIl certainly be appreciated, but ultimately the decision to go with you rather than with 22Pye, Luden, Chmese Commercial Neg()tiating Style, Oegeschlager, GUlUl, Hain, lile .• Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1982.
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292 Successful Intemational Communicatlon your competitor might not'be based oÍl your informaríon, but rather on whether or not you appealed to the Mexican sense of honor and dig- nity, whether you expressed your emotions freely, whether you were simpático. And as we have seen in Arab cultures, the need to become "family" is critical for trust and agreement to occur. In many Asian cul- tures, information upon which one makes the decision to move forward together or not, is presented, not as an argument or as emotional ap- peal, but rather as an exposition. It might seem to the Westerner (and certainly to the Latin American) as somewhat cold, sterile, and impersonal.
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