Workers have indicated the value of many compounds including chloramphenicol

Workers have indicated the value of many compounds

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food) very early in the disease cycle, if success is to be achieved. Workers have indicated the value of many compounds, including chloramphenicol, flumequine (Vik-Mo et al, 2005), furanace, nitrofurazone, oxolinic acid, oxytetracycHne and sulphamerazine. As a general comment, we advise upon caution when contemplating the need for pharmaceuticals, particularly antibiotics, because of the potential risk of resistance which may be attributed to plasmids, i.e. R-factors (Aoki, 1988). Aoki et al. (1974) reported that 65/68 V. anguillarum isolates carried R-factors, conveying resistance to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracycline. There- fore, if R-factors abound, it is unlikely that the common antibiotics will do much to retard the disease cycle. Another approach has involved the use of antimicrobial peptides, namely a cecropin-melittin hybrid peptide and pleurocidin amide, which is a C-terminally amidated form of a natural flounder peptide. These were applied continuously at a rate of 200 |ig/day and 250 |ig/for for cecropin-melittin hybrid peptide and pleuro- cidin amide, respectively, by mini-osmotic pumps installed in the peritoneal cavity of coho salmon with the result that fewer mortalities occurred compared with the controls. In the case of pleurocidin amide, 5% mortalities were recorded compared with 67-75% of the controls (Jia et al, 2000). Vibrio fischeri Chemotherapy was ineffective at reducing mortalities (Lamas et al, 1990).
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400 Bacterial Fish Pathogens Vibrio harveyi Kraxberger-Beatty et al. (1990) reported success with Prefuran (Argent) dosed at O.lmg/1 for an unspecified period. Saeed (1995) found success with oxytetracycline as a food additive. Yii et al. (1997) determined susceptibility to a wide range of inhibitory compounds, including chloramphenicol, doxycycline, nalidixic acid, oxo- linic acid, oxytetracycline and sulphonamide, but not ampicillin or penicillin G. Vibrio pelagius Treatment with oxytetracycline was effective at stopping mortalities (Angulo et al, 1992). Also, it was considered that potentiated sulphonamides and flumequine would be successful. Vibrio salmonicida Oxolinic acid controls mortalities in Atlantic salmon (B. Austin, unpublished data). Vibrio splendidus Susceptibility was recorded to chloramphenicol, flumequine, nitrofurantoin, nifur- pirinol, oxoHnic acid and potentiated sulphonamide, but not to ampicillin, oxy- tetracycline or streptomycin. Treatment with oxolinic acid was partially successful. However, the presence of virus undoubtedly complicated the chemotherapeutic regime (Lupiani et al., 1989). In a subsequent study, Angulo et al. (1994) reported success with flumequine as a feed additive. Vibrio tapetis Sensitivity was recorded to flumequine, oxolinic acid and oxytetracycline (Jensen et al, 2003). Vibrio vulnificus Although this aspect has not been addressed, it seems likely that infections will respond to broad-spectrum antimicrobial compounds, such as flumequine, oxolinic acid, oxytetracycHne and potentiated sulphonamides (Muroga et al, 1976a, b; Nishibuchi and Muroga, 1977, 1980; Nishibuchi et al, 1979, 1980).
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