Behaviors themselves the more non routine the task

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behaviors themselves; the more non-routine the task, the harder it is to measure performance 3. Compare actual performance against chosen targets 4. Evaluate results and take corrective action: are targets set too high or low? Do workers need additional training? Three Types of Organizational Control Systems (Discussed throughout the semester): 1. Output Control: financial measures of performance, organizational goals, and operating budgets 2. Behavior Control : direct supervision, management by objectives, and rules and standard operating procedures 10
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3. Organizational Culture Control : Values, Norms, and Socialization (*Connect Ideas!*) Lecture 8: Work: Task and Job Design Organizational Design : managerial choices that formalize the patterns of interactions between an organization’s people and tasks; at the macro level there’s Structure , and at the micro level there’s Job Design. Job Analysis : systematic process of collecting and interpreting information on work-related activities; the purpose of job analysis is designing selection systems, training programs, and performance appraisals Focuses on… o Tasks, Duties, & Activities (TDAs) , which is the “Job Description” for example, “the tasks of a call center worker include…” o Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSAs) , which is “Job Specifications” for example, “What qualities are necessary for a general manager?” How’s a job analysis done? Examples: interviews with current employees, structured questionnaires, direct observation, taxonomies, or info from incumbents, supervisors, job analysts, training material, etc; it’s best to use multiple sources Job Design : Two Basic Approaches 1. Theory X Scientific Management – Adam Smith – specialization, efficiency, and the “one best way;” very traditional approach, very specialized and efficient; for Job Re-Design Activities , focuses on Job Simplification , the process of reducing the tasks each worker performs a. Adam Smith: “The Wealth of Nations” – Smith on the “Division of Labor ” said there were 18 steps to making a pen; this process showed the tremendous gains of specialization and the increased production possible by dividing up tasks; the model assumes that the specialized worker gets better at their tasks over time b. Scientific Management – Frederick Winslow Taylor : “ Taylorism ” : saw management as a science; his work focused on production of coal and steel, where he did a time-study analysis of the jobs; he analyzed very specific tasks and learned to make each task more efficient (ex 60 scoops of coal per minute) i. Taylorism today…. Ex. McDonald’s 2. Theory Y -- Job Characteristics Model – Hackman & Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model – involves variety, satisfaction, and empowerment; for Job Re-Design Activities , focuses on Job Enlargement (increasing number of tasks to reduce boredom) and Job Enrichment (increasing the degree of responsibility a worker has over a job).
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