The publication of the standford binet also marks the

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The publication of the Standford-Binet also marks the origin of the concept of IQ o A German named Stern had previously suggested using the ratio of “mental age to “chronological” age as a measure of what he called the “mental quotient” o Terman adopted the metric and renamed it the “intelligence quotient”, or IQ = MA/CA X 100; if MA = CA, IQ = 100 Terman’s Study of the “Gifted” o Intelligence tests were originally developed to identify those with low intelligence who could not benefit from regular education or who need to be kept from breeding o Apart from development of the Stanford-Binet, Terman is best known for his study of intellectually gifted children o Through testing, Terman identified a group of about 1,500 gifted children (IQ ca 140-150) o Terman’s study became the longest longitudinal study in the history of psychology o Beginning ca 1920 the children were followed into the 1980s (by Terman’s successors) o The main findings, published in “Genetic Studies of Genius” were that gifted children were more successful, productive, well adjusted, and physically healthy o Study has been criticized for nativist assumptions and sample bias: most subjects were relatively wealthy white middle and upper class Robert Yerkes (1876-1956) o American psychologist, ethologist, comparative psychologist, primatologist, psychometrician, eugenicist o Went to Harvard to study medicine became interested in comparative psychology instead; earned Ph.D. in psychology in 1902 o Took part-time job at Boston Psychopathic Hospital where he was introduced to intelligence testing o President of the APA when WWI started 15
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o Lead army’s new testing program initiated at the start of WWI o New tests had to be developed because: The large number or recruits; introduced “group testing” The purpose was to identify who was fit for military service, not just intelligence Moreover, the tests needed to identify persons suited for different types of service, e.g., officer training, infantry, mechanics, etc. o Because 30% of recruits were illiterate, two versions of the test were created, the Army Alpha (for literate recruits) and the Army Beta (for illiterate recruits) o The military saw little value in the testing during WWI, but the effort gave birth to a new psychometrics enterprise in psychology o 1920s saw mental testing spread into many domains especially in education The Intelligence Controversy o Nativism and beliefs of the pioneers of mental testing Intelligence is primarily inherited; environment had little to do with it Intelligence is a unitary, general construct that underlies various abilities Intelligence tests measure innate general intelligence o Some, especially anthropologists (e.g ., Boas) and sociologists, began questioning the nativists assumptions of the psychologists o Columnist Walter Lippmann argued against nativists assumptions and said that “intelligence” was influenced by
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