19 Nutrition flashcards.doc

The glycerol component of triglycerides can be

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the glycerol component of triglycerides can be converted into glucose by way of glycogenolysis. 61. Do triglycerides cause heart disease? Probably not, but high levels are present in people with heart disease. 62. What percentage of your diet being from carbohydrates will increase your blood triglyceride levels, especially if you have diabetes or are overweight? 60% 63. When a high carbohydrate diet causes high levels of triglycerides in the blood, what is the condition is called? carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia 64. What does carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia do to a person’s glycemic index? What does that do to insulin levels? Elevates it, causing an overproduction of insulin 65. What is the function of insulin? 66. What happens when cells are resistant to insulin? It pulls glucose into the cells. If a cell is insulin resistant, the glucose will stay in the blood and spill into the urine. High levels of blood sugar will damage the brain and blood vessel lining. 67. What is the best food to reduce triglyceride levels? Up to 3 grams a day of omega-3 fatty acids from flax seed oil (linseed oil). 68. What does it mean that Omega 3 fatty acids are essential? They are not made in our body, so they are needed in our diet. 69. What are some good things about Omega 3 fatty acids? They are essential to normal growth in young children. In adults, they may improve rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. 70. What is the best source of Omega 3 fatty acids? Flax (linseed) and its oil 71. Why should you avoid Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil, even though they are heavily advertised? Because fish oils are too high in vitamin A, which is toxic in high levels. 72. What is the glycemic index? a measure of the effects of carbohydrates on blood sugar levels. 73. What makes a particular carbohydrate have a high glycemic index? What is an example of one? Carbohydrates that break down quickly during digestion and release glucose rapidly into the bloodstream. Simple sugar like glucose is an example. 74. What is an example of a carbohydrate with a low glycemic index? Starch 75. What carbohydrates have slower rates of digestion and absorption, causing a lower insulin demand, and are thus better for a diabetic? Foods with a lower glycemic index
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Nutrition Flashcards 76. What is the Body Mass Index (BMI)? An estimate of body fat 77. What two things are used to calculate BMI? Weight and height 78. Does BMI actually measure the percentage of body fat? No…you would have to weigh yourself in a swimming pool to calculate that. 79. What is the quickest, most readily available source of energy for the body? Glucose 80. What are carbohydrates broken down into? Glucose 81. What is broken down if there is not enough blood glucose between meals? Triglycerides are broken down into fatty acids and proteins (including heart muscle) are broken down to amino acids, which combined and made into new glucose 82. What are simple carbohydrates? sugars 83. What are examples of simple carbohydrates? ice cream, cakes, and cookies. Plain white sugar from a box (called refined sugar) 84. Why are sugars called empty calories?
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