Tensions broke out in 656 when mutinous warriors

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Tensions broke out in 656 when mutinous warriors killed Uthman– Third caliph and member of Umayyad clan; murdered by mutinous warriors from Egypt; death set off civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clanoAli’s supporters wanted him to be caliph, but the Umayyads rejected him (he didn’t punish the assassins) even though they weren’t popular (earlier they were enemies); swore revengeAli – famous warrior and commander with committed supportersoWon at Battle of the Camel (656), gaining Arab garrisons, but won over by plea of mediation at Battle of Siffin(657) – Fought in 657 between forces of Ali and Umayyads; settled by negotiation that led to fragmentation of Ali’s partyFatal to cause, lost even fervent followers; Umayyads added forces in Egypt660 Mu’awiya– Leader of the Umayyad clan; first Umayyad caliph following civil war with AlioAli later assassinated, and son Hassan pressured to renounce claims to caliphateSplit created between Sunnis- and Shi’aoAli’s other son Husayn was abandoned in Iraq and killed at Karbala
oEventually, divisions in belief, ritual, and law were created along with splinter sectsThe Umayyad ImperiumStill great conquests in late 7thcentury; central Asia, northwest India, north Africa, Spain and FranceoBlocked at west Europe, retreated centuries laterDominated the Mediterranean, conquered Crete, Sicily, and Sardinia in 9thcenturyBy 700s, spread from Spain to central Asia; fastest growing empire this largeUmayyads made political center in DamascusoBuilt bureaucracy to control non-Muslim/Arabs; Arab conquest stateoOnly Muslim Arabs were first-class citizens; tried to keep isolated to avoid marriage to other cultures and conversion (Muslims were not taxed, so avoided loss of taxable people)Made up core of army and administrationConverts and “People of the Book”Attempts to separate Muslim warrior elite from non-Muslims failed; many people voluntarily converting and intermarrying with Bedouins; called mawali– Non-Arab converts to IslamoStill had to pay jizya – Head tax paid by all nonbelievers in Islamic territoriesoNo share of booty, nearly impossible to get army or political positions; not considered full umma, simply clientsGreat portion of empire considered dhimmi– literally “people of the book”; applied as inclusive termto Jews and Christians in Islamic territories; later extended to Zoroastrians and even HindusoHad to pay jizya, property and commercial taxes able to keep legal systems and communities,so accepted Arab ruleFamily and Gender Roles in the Umayyad AgeWomen had strengthened position – not as isolated as in earlier Middle Eastern societiesMuhammad and Qur’an stressed moral/ ethical dimensions of marriage – set example through own wife and daughters (who helped compile Qur’an)oForbade adultery, previous sexual liasons, female infanticideoMen can have 4 wives, if enough money and treated equallyoWomen more legal rights (inherit./divorce) and gets bride-priceRecorded hadiths

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