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Measles7-21 daysSingle stranded RNA virus with one serotype.Classified as a memberof the genus Morbillivirus in the Paramyoxoviridae family. Humans are the only natural hosts.Respiratory, direct contact with droplets, the virus can stay active in the air for up to 2 hours after a sneeze or a cough, in 2000 endemic measles was considered eliminated from the US meaning that there were no cases in the region in 12 months, but there are still periodic outbreaks because of worldwide travelHIV InfectionWithin 2-4 weeksafter HIVinfection, many, but not all,people develop flu-like symptoms, often described as “the worst fluHIV disease is caused by infection with HIV-1 or HIV-2, both of which cause very similar conditions. They differ Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a blood-borne virus typically transmitted via sexual intercourse, shared intravenous drug
ever.” Symptoms can include fever, swollen glands, sore throat, rash, muscle and joint aches and pains, and headache. This is called “acute retroviral syndrome” (ARS)or “primary HIV infection,” and it’s the body’s natural response tothe HIV infection.The median incubation period from HIV infection until development of AIDS is estimated at approximately 10 years foryoung adults. The estimate varies with the age at which infection occurs and is significantly shorter in infants and in older adults and varies even between infection at age 20 and infection at age 40. Whether the incubation period varies by mode of HIV acquisition has been moredifficult to determine, but the preponderance of evidence now indicates that, after adjustment for age, the incubation period is similar in injecting drug users, those infected sexually, and hemophiliacs, whereas incubation time in transfusion recipients is shorter, probably because of the large HIV inoculum in infected blood transfusions. The incubation period does notappear to vary significantlyin men and women or in different racial groups.in transmission and progression risks.in the Retroviridae family, Lentivirusgenus.paraphernalia, and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT),which can occur during the birth process or during breastfeeding. HIV disease iscaused by infection with HIV-1 or HIV-2, which are retroviruses.b.Differentiate between clinical manifestations and pathophysiology of influenza, and measles and describe the clinical implications for your practice as a nurse practitioner.
Viral InfectionClinical ManifestationsPathophysiologyClinical ImplicationsInfluenzafever, myalgia, headache, malaise, nonproductive cough, sore throat, and rhinitis, among children, otitis media,nausea, and vomitingalso are commonly reportedInfluenza viruses are encapsulated, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae. The core nucleoproteins are used to distinguish the 3 types of influenza viruses:A, B, and C. Influenza A viruses cause most human and all avian influenza infections. The RNA core consists of 8 gene segments surrounded by a coat of 10 (influenza A) or 11 (influenza B) proteins.