HISTORY
Humanities Review.docx

Agri family bonds tighter patriarchal social

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↑ Agri → family bonds → tighter patriarchal social structure ( foot binding shows male dominance) *Wu Zhao - “The Lady Emperor”: seized authority, violated Confucian principles, harsh punishments, strengthened CSE, Buddhism, only woman emperor ever. Porcelain (chinaware)- lighter+thinner Diffusion: India, Persia, SE Asia, E Africa Gunpowder : war efficiency (cannon) Diffusion: SW Asia, Europe Printing - quick and cheap production Earliest form- block printing Compass - assisted in navigation during the Song Dynasty Emergence of a market economy flourished due to tight integration and foreign demand. New methods of financial exchange Letters of credit ( flying cash ) enabled merchants to deposit and draw at diff locations Merchants used paper money to redeem merch and facilitate trade. Causes disorder when not honored→issued by the state. Counterfeit problems. Cosmopolitan societies emerged when tr ade w/ the Abbasid and C Asia revived the silk roads→ increased interaction with foreign merchants (diffusion) Traded silk, porcelain and lacquerware with spices from SE Asia, feathers and shells from Vietnam, and pearls and incense from India Cultural Change in Tang and Song China Confucian traditions lost credibility from public disorder→emergence of Mahayana Buddhism on the Silk Road ( southernization ) The establishment of Buddhism was popular because of morality, sophistication, and salvation. No social hierarchy. Provided education, food, and banking. Centers of society. Buddhism v.s. Confucianism Buddhists concentrated on metaphysical and ascetic aspects Confucians concentrated on order, place in society, and filial piety Resisted by Daoists (less resources) and Confucians (opposed celibacy) Neo-Confucianism: influence of Buddhism (drawing logical thought and methods) on original Confucian values/best rep. was Zhu Xi ) Philosophical, political and moral ideas Influence of buddhism in Chinese society (adaptation of Buddhist themes into Confucian writings) and long term influence over E Asia Chinese Influence in E Asia- sinification. Korea - The Silla Dynasty imitated China Vietnam - resistance w tense tributary relationship Japan- Nara Japan was a replica of
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Mutualistic tributary relationship/overlord Embassies brought chinese lit, Buddhism, neo-confucianism, bureaucracy Political initiative mainly in ruling classes Adopted agricultural methods, Buddhism, bureaucracy Differences: kept original religions + women played a large role Tang decline → independence Chang’an Adopted govt., Confucianism, Buddhism, equal field system Heian Japan- most infl Chinese and Japanese art: Subjects were mostly nature and harmony Chinese art: calligraphy, architecture, pottery, sculpture, bronzes, jade carving Japanese art: Folding screens, yamato-e paintings, emaki scrolls (shows wealth) Heian Japan - family (Fujiwara) overpowered figurehead emperor. High Chinese influence, Golden Age of Japan Tale of Genji: written by Murasaki Shikibu (women have the most notable contributions). “code” of fashion, behaviour,
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