predictivevalueincreasesaswellasthereliabilityofthetestWhene...

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predictive value increases as well as the reliability of the test. When early detection is increased  with better imaging the validity of a mammogram goes up as well. Tests such as these are very  important in the survival rates of women who are diagnoses with breast cancer the accurate the  test can be the better care they can receive. References: Friedewald S, Rafferty E, Conant E, et al. Breast cancer screening using tomosynthesis in  combination with digital mammography.  Jama  [serial online]. June 25, 2014;311(24):2499- 2507. Available from: MEDLINE Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed March 9, 2017. Jones, P. (2016). Decision making tool: Should I have a mammogram?.  Health Library: 
Evidence-Based Information - 4101-ad50- a8c036b8d1a3%40sessionmgr101&vid=3&hid=117&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2N vcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=2010536180&db=nup Show Less Cerissa Malinosky 3/11/2017 8:12:45 AM Disease detecting testing Introduction This week’s thread is about preventative screening for improved health. A case study is given and will be examined for appropriate testing for promotion of health and prevention of disease. Also discussed will be how to appropriately read the screening test appropriately. Discussion Shelby has risk factors for multiple health issues. For instance, Shelby continues to smoke with a 15 pack year history (CCN, n.d.). Also, Shelby has a family history of breast cancer. Finally, she has a personal history of an abnormal cervical cancer screening. Due to these risk factors, Shelby should have smoking cessation teaching, a mammogram, and a repeat cervical cancer screening test, likely cytology from a Pap smear. Because Shelby had an abnormal cervical cancer screening test, or cytology from a Pap smear, she will likely get Sequential testing again (Gordis, 2014). Sequential testing or two stage testing is done when the initial, less expensive and less invasive test is positive, which in this case would be the cytology done on the cervical cancer screening test (Gordis, 2014). According to Macharia, Cheserem, Bukusi, & Muchiri (2014), cytology from a Pap smear has a false-positive rate of 1-10%, so further testing must be sought. False positive results mean that a test was positive, when, in fact, the patient does not have the disease (Gordis, 2014). The patient is then
brought back for the more expensive, more invasive testing that will has a greater sensitivity and specificity as a diagnostic test for the presence of disease, which would then be the colposcopy (Gordis, 2014). According to Sharma, Sinha, & Roshan (2013), they found “premalignant lesions of cervix in cytology with sensitivity of cytology with biopsy as gold standard was 57.14% and specificity was 88.88%, positive predictive value was 66.66%” (p. 9699). In regards to sensitivity, this means that the test yielded a positive result when the person actually has the disease 57.14% of the time (CCN, n.d.b). The specificity of this test showed that 88.88% of the time, the test gave a negative result when the person did

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