In this respect the underlying attitude of many cartog raphers is revealed in a

In this respect the underlying attitude of many

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cy,' and 'truthfulness.' In this respect, the underlying attitude of many cartog- raphers is revealed in a recent book of essays on Cartographie dans les médias. 26 One of its reviewers has noted how many authors attempt to exorcise from the realm of cartography any graphic representation that is not a simple planimetric image, and to then classify all other maps as 'decorative graphics masquerading as maps' where the 'bending of cartographic rules' has taken place ... mostjournalistic maps are flawed because they are inaccurate, misleading or biased. 27 Or in Britain, we are told, there was set up a 'Media Map Watch' in 1984. "Several hundred interested members [of cartographic and geographic societies] submit- ted several thousand maps and diagrams for analysis that revealed [according to the rules] numerous common deficiencies, errors, and inaccuracies along with misleading standards." 28 In this example of cartographic vigilantism the 'ethic of accuracy' is being defended with some ideological fervor. The language of exclu- sion is that of a string of 'natural' opposites: 'true and false'; 'objective and subjective'; 'literal and symbolic' and so on. The best maps are those with an "authoritative image of self-evident factuality." 29 In cases where the scientific rules are invisible in the map we can still trace their play in attempting to normalize the discourse. The cartographer's 'black box' has to be defended and its social origins suppressed. The hysteria among leading cartographers at the popularity of the Peters' projection, 30 or the recent express- ions of piety among Western European and North American map-makers follow- ing the Russian admission that they had falsified their topographic maps to confuse the enemy give us a glimpse of how the game is played according to these rules. What are we to make of the 1988 newspaper headlines such as "Russians Caught Mapping" (Ottawa Citizen), "Soviets Admit Map Paranoia" (WisconsinJour- nal) or (in the New York Times) "In West, Map makers Hail 'Truth'" and "The rascals finally realized the truth and were able to tell it, a geographer at the Defense Department said"? 31 The implication is that Western maps are value free. According to the spokesman, our maps are not ideological documents, and the condemnation of Russian falsification is as much an echo of Cold War rhetoric as it is a credible cartographic criticism. This timely example also serves to introduce my second contention that the scientific rules of mapping are, in any case, influenced by a quite different set of rules, those governing the cultural production of the map. To discover these rules, we have to read between the lines of technical procedures or of the map's topographic content. They are related to values, such as those of ethnicity, politics, religion, or social class, and they are also embedded in the map-producing society at large. Cartographic discourse operates a double silence toward this aspect of the possibilities for map knowledge. In the map itself, social structures are often
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