versus complex, (3) directional versus nondirectional, and (4) null versus research.Question 4 A stimulus or activity that is measured to examine the effect created by the independent variable bestdescribes a(n) _____ variable.Answersa.
: Extraneous b. Demographicc. Independentd. Dependent Response Feedback: In quantitative research, the independent variable(intervention, treatment, or experimental variable) is manipulated or varied by the researcher to cause an effect on the dependent variable. The dependent variable (response or outcome variable) is measured to examine the effect created by the independent variable. An independent variable is a stimulus or activity that is manipulated or varied by the researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable. A dependent variable is the response behavior or outcome that the researcher wants to predict or explain. Extraneous variables exist in all studies and can affect the measurement of study variables and the relationships among them. Extraneous variables are of primary concern in quantitative studies, because they can obscure one’s understanding of the relational or causal dynamics within the studies. Demographic variables are attributes of the subjects that are measured during the study and used to describe the sample.Question 5
Which of the following could serve as a primary sourceof information thatmight be available to someone writing a biography of Jonas Salk who died in 1995?Answers: a. A published interview with one of his lab techniciansb. A diary written by Dr. Salk.c. A previous history of his work written about himd. An article about Dr. Salk in a 1960's journal.Response Feedback: The published literature contains primary and secondary sources. A primary source is written by the person who originated, or is responsible for generating, the ideas published. A research publication published by the person or people who conducted the research is a primary source. A theoretical book or paper written by the theorist who developed the theory or conceptual content is a primary source. A secondary source summarizes or quotes content from primary sources. Thus, authors of secondary sources paraphrase the works of researchers and theorists. The problem with a secondary source is that the author has interpreted the works of someone else, and this interpretation is influenced by that author’s perception and bias. Authors have sometimes spread errors and misinterpretations by usingsecondary sources rather than primary sources. You should use mostly primary sources to write literature reviews. Secondary sources are used only if primary sources cannot be
located or if a secondary source contains creative ideas or a unique organization of information not found in a primary source.
- Fall '16
- Denise Cauble
- Nursing, Null hypothesis, researcher