Animism: inanimate objects have feelings/lifelike characteristics o Egocentrism: can’t recognize peoples’ psychologies o Egocentric speech: no detail in story-telling o Centration Conservation tasks Conservation of number first achieved at age 5 Conservation of volume: achieved 1-2 years after ^^ Conservation of mass: “…” Conservation of length: achieved 2-3 years after number Conservation of weight: “…”
o Why these errors? Centration: focus on most salient single feature of situation Decentration: understanding that several things are happening at once; superficial changes can be reversed Categorization Categorization inability: basic failure to understand logic of classes and subclasses Structure and logic of classes: o Can belong to multiple classes o Subclass can’t be larger than superordinate class Critiques Egocentrism o 2-3 year olds adjust to others’ perspectives in some situations o 4-5 year olds pass the Sally-Ann task Conservation tasks o Cultural variation o Role of experience Concrete Operations Stage Accomplishments: o Sophisticated schemes Mental operations o Decentering Categorization and class inclusion Conservation tasks o Reversibility o Egocentrism Shortcomings: o Logic can only be applied to concrete, real-world objects and events- therefore, can’t solve abstract problems Can’t do math in their heads Can’t handle contrary-to-fact premises Poor systematic problem-solving Formal Operations Stage Achievements o Hypothetico-deductive reasoning Abstract Can imagine things they’ve never seen; don’t need to rely on concrete experiences to solve problems o Systematic problem-solving Several variables going on at once and how they interact with each other Critiques: o Basic observations confirmed o Fields of expertise Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory
Summary: Pros and Cons o Hits Founded discipline of cognitive development Provides explanation, not just description Convinced us that kids are curious, active explorers Play important role in own development Generally accurate o Misses Failure to distinguish competence from cognitive performance (pendulum task) Vague as to mechanism What maturational changes and experiences are necessary to go through these stages? October 22, 2014. Cognitive Development 2: Information Processing Information processing model o Sensory input enters into sensory memory (all info lost in .5-3 seconds) o Attend to some information> then moved to short-term and working memory (unrehearsed info lost in 10-15 seconds)> rehearsal of info o Moved into long-term memory after rehearsal (stored permanently)> info needed to comprehend new information and techniques for processing new information Information processing in infants o Memory may be present at birth, but weak Habituation/dishabituation Classical conditioning:
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- Fall '13