{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

The flow of solar energy intercepted by an exposed

Info icon This preview shows pages 10–12. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
the flow of solar energy intercepted by an exposed surface,  assuming a uniformly spherical Earth with no atmosphere o Depends on the angle of the Sun above the horizon o Insolation is greatest when the Sun is directly overhead and the  Sun’s rays are vertical o When the Sun is lower in the sky, the same amount of solar energy  spreads over a greater area of ground surface, so insolation is  lower o Daily insolation at a location depends on two factors 1. The angle at which the Sun’s rays strike the Earth 2. The length of time of exposure to the rays both of these factors are controlled by the latitude of the  location and the time of year.  o In midlatitude locations in summer, days are long and the Sun rises  to a position high in the sky, increasing daily insolation.  o Annual insolation depends upon the angle at which the Sun’s rays  strike the Earth and the length of time of exposure to the rays.  Controlled only by the latitude of the location  Net radiation:  the difference between the amount of incoming radiation  and the amount of outgoing radiation at a given location 
Image of page 10

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
o when radiant energy flows in faster than it flows out, net radiation is  positive, providing an energy surplus o When radiant energy flows in slower than it flows out, it is  negative energy deficit o For Earth, the net radiation is zero over the year o Between 40 ° N and 40 ° S, there is a net radiation energy  gain energy surplus o Poleward of 40 ° N and 40 ° S, net radiation is negative energy deficit o There is an energy surplus at low latitudes and an energy deficit at  low latitudes Energy flows from low latitudes to high o Warm ocean waters and warm, moist air move poleward o Cooler waters and cool drier air move towards the equator o This poleward heat transfer is the power source for almost all  broad-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, weather phenomena,  and ocean currents. o Without this circulation, low latitudes would heat up and high  latitudes would cool down until a balance was achieved, leaving the  Earth with much more extreme temperature contrasts Sensible heat:  an indication of the intensity of kinetic energy of molecular  motion within a substance; it is measured by a thermometer o What you feel when you touch a warm object o The transfer of sensible heat moves energy from warmer to colder  objects when they are put into contact (CONDUCTION) o In the atmosphere, sensible heat is conducted by random molecular  motions directly from the surface to the adjacent air layer o This warm air is then mixed to higher levels and warms the air 
Image of page 11
Image of page 12
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern