SSRIs are widely used today to treat depression and anxiety disorders Two ways

Ssris are widely used today to treat depression and

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SSRI’s are widely used today to treat depression and anxiety disorders Two ways to deactivate a neurotransmitter in the synapse: Reuptake Chemical breakdown by enzymes Monoamineoxidase (MAO ) Breaks down monoamines (such as norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine) chemically and renders them inactive
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MAO inhibitors Inhibit the activity of the MAO enzyme, thus limiting breakdown of monoamines, increasing their availability in the brain 3 rd class of medications used to treat depression through different mechanism: o Inhibit activity of the MAO enzyme, thus limiting breakdown of monoamines, which increases their availability in the brain REMEMBER: SSRI and Tricyclic antidepressants slow down process of inactivation of monoamine neurotransmitters by inhibiting reuptake Depression generally reflects deregulation of monoamines in the brain Question: The tree types of medications currently used to treat depression all work in one way or another to Interfere with the way that monoamines are regulated in the brain, slow down a process of inactivation of monoamine neurotransmitters, and allow monoamines to be more available in the brain (D: all of the above) Treatments 50% likelihood that symptoms of depression will subside in either medication treatment or cognitive behavioral treatment, comparing to control group Sometimes medication treatment and cognitive behavioral treatment together lead to a faster decline of symptoms than one treatment alone Most reliable finding is that medication and behavioral treatment are about equivalent in treating symptoms of depression Tells us that somehow biological and psychological processes are interacting with one another Drug treatment for Bipolar disorder Lithium Carbonate (salt) o Effective as mood stabilizer for people with bipolar disorder o Problem: aversive side effects for patients taking it on a long term basis Include nausea, weight gain, memory problems, sometimes impaired coordination B/c of side effects, patients wish to stop taking medication, especially if mood has stabilized for a while
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The drug has to be taken over very long period of time to work (unlike depression medication) Anticonvulsant Medication o Can be used to treat acute manic episodes o Not usually long term like lithium o Clear evidence that combination of medication and psychotherapy is the best type of treatment for bipolar disorder Medication alone is not as effective o Neuroendocrine Factor Neuroendocrine systems: link the brain, hormones, and certain organs Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis Functions as one of stress response systems When there is a stressor or a threat Stress hypothalamus Pituitary gland Adrenal Glands cortisol Elevated cortisol levels and abnormal daily rhythms of cortisol level Detection of stress translates through HPA axis to secretion of hormone cortisol Greatest secretion of cortisol in the morning and gradual decline over the rest of the day Abnormal daily rhythms of cortisol levels in
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