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SSRI’s are widely used today to treat depression and anxiety disordersTwo ways to deactivate a neurotransmitter in the synapse:ReuptakeChemical breakdown by enzymesMonoamineoxidase (MAO)Breaks down monoamines (such as norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine) chemically and renders them inactive
MAO inhibitorsInhibit the activity of the MAO enzyme, thus limiting breakdown of monoamines, increasing their availability in the brain3rdclass of medications used to treat depression through different mechanism:oInhibit activity of the MAO enzyme, thus limiting breakdown of monoamines, which increases their availability in the brainREMEMBER: SSRI and Tricyclic antidepressants slow down process of inactivation of monoamine neurotransmitters by inhibiting reuptake Depression generally reflects deregulation of monoaminesin the brainQuestion: The tree types of medications currently used to treat depression all work in one way or another toInterfere with the way that monoamines are regulated in the brain, slow down a process of inactivation of monoamine neurotransmitters, and allow monoamines to be more available in the brain (D: all of the above)Treatments50% likelihood that symptoms of depression will subside in either medication treatment or cognitive behavioral treatment, comparing to control groupSometimes medication treatment and cognitive behavioral treatment together lead to a faster decline of symptoms than one treatment aloneMost reliable finding is that medication and behavioral treatment are about equivalent in treating symptoms of depressionTells us that somehow biological and psychological processes are interacting with one anotherDrug treatment for Bipolar disorderLithium Carbonate(salt)oEffective as mood stabilizer for people with bipolar disorderoProblem: aversive side effectsfor patients taking it on a long term basisInclude nausea, weight gain, memory problems, sometimes impaired coordinationB/c of side effects, patients wish to stop taking medication, especially if mood has stabilized for a while
The drug has to be taken over very long period of time to work (unlike depression medication)Anticonvulsant MedicationoCan be used to treat acute manic episodesoNot usually long term like lithiumoClear evidence that combination of medication and psychotherapy is the best type of treatment for bipolar disorderMedication alone is not as effectiveoNeuroendocrine FactorNeuroendocrine systems: link the brain, hormones, and certainorgansHypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axisFunctions as one of stress response systemsWhen there is a stressor or a threatStress hypothalamus Pituitary gland Adrenal Glands cortisolElevated cortisol levels and abnormal daily rhythms of cortisol levelDetection of stress translates through HPA axis to secretion of hormone cortisolGreatest secretion of cortisol in the morning and gradual decline over the rest of the dayAbnormal daily rhythms of cortisol levels in