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IEC_Elctrical Energy Storage.pdf

These balancing methods not requiring ees need to be

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These balancing methods not requiring EES need to be considered for a proper forecast of the market potential for EES.
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48 S E C T I O N 3 Markets for EES Decentralized storage systems for increased self-consumption of PV energy (kWh class) With the increasing number of installed PV systems, the low-voltage grid is reaching its performance limit. In Germany, the EEG (Renewable Energies Law) guarantees, for a period of 20 years, a feed-in tariff for every kWh produced and a fixed tariff for every kWh produced and self-consumed. To encourage operators of decentralized systems, the price for self-consumed PV energy is higher. Therefore self-consumption of power will become an important option for private households with PV facilities, especially as the price of electricity increases. Figure 3-7 shows an example of system design. To measure the amount of energy consumed or fed into the grid two meters are needed. One meter measures the energy generated by the PV system. The other meter works bidirectionally and measures the energy obtained from or supplied to the grid. The generated energy that is not immediately consumed is stored in the battery. In order to examine how much electricity can be self-supplied from PV, the results from a simulation for a typical household in Madrid may be of interest [sch11]. The total consumption of the household over one year is about 3 400 kWh. The aim is to use as much energy internally as possible, with a 10.7 kW PV generator and a 6 kWh lithium ion storage system. Figure 3-8 shows the electricity consumption of the household over a year. Regardless of the time of energy production, the storage provides the energy generated by the PV generator to electrical appliances. Supply and demand can be adjusted to each other. The integrated storage system is designed to cover 100 % of the demand with the energy generated by the PV system during the summer. During the rest of the year a little additional energy has to be purchased from the grid. Figure 3-7 – PV system designed for energy self-consumption (Fraunhofer ISE) = ~ = = PV Generator Storage DC/DC Changer Load Inverter Meter Bidirectional Meter Grid
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49 Figure 3-8 – Consumption of a typical household with a storage system: energy consumed from the grid and from the PV system (Fraunhofer ISE) To provide a consumer-friendly system at low cost, maintenance cost in particular needs to be low and the most important factor for stationary batteries is still the price per kWh. Currently for this application lead acid batteries are the most common technology because of the low investment costs. Lithium ion batteries are generally better in efficiency and in the number of cycles, but they have much higher investment costs. NaNiCl batteries are also an option for this application, but they need daily cycling to avoid additional heating.
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