●A schema is an underlying rep- resentation of knowledge that guides the current process- ing of information and often leads to distortions in attention, memory, and comprehension. People develop di erent schemas based on their temperament, abilities, and experiences. ●di erent forms of psychopathology are characterized by di erent maladaptive schemas that have developed as a function of adverse early learning experiences. These maladaptive schemas lead to the distortions in thinking that are charac- teristic of certain disorders such as anxiety, depression, and personality disorders. In addition to studying the nature of dysfunctional schemas associated with di erent forms of psychopathology, researchers have also studied several dif- ferent patterns of distorted information processing exhib- ited by people with various forms of psychopathology d.Attribution style. Attributional Style” is about how you explain the causes of events. Why you should care about your attributional style is that it's related to depression, self esteem, and relationship happiness.9.Impact of the Cognitive Model 10. Social Perspective A.Early childhood deprivation – trauma. Children who do not have the resources that are typically supplied by parents or parental surrogates may be left withdeep and sometimes irreversible psychological scars. The needed resources range from food and shelter to love and attention. Deprivation of such resources can occur in several forms. ●INSTITUTIONALIZATION In some cases children are raised in an institution where, compared with an ordinary home, there is likely to besigni cantly less warmth and physical contact; less intellectual, emotional, and social stimulation; and a lack of encouragement and help in positive learning. Many children institutionalized in infancy and
early childhood show severe emotional, behavioral, and learning problems and are at risk for disturbed attachment relationships and psychopathology ●NEGLECT AND ABUSE IN THE HOME Most infants subjected to parental deprivation are not separated from their parents and placed in institutions; rather, they su er from maltreatment in their own home. ●SEPARATION First, there are the short-term or acute effects of the separation, which can include significant despair during the separation as well as detachment from the parents upon reunion; Bowlby considered this to be a normal response to prolonged separation, even in infants with a secure attachment. However, he also found evidence that children who undergo a number of such separations may develop an insecure attachment. B.Four types of parenting styles 1.Authoritative Parenting The authoritative style is one in which the parents are both very warm and very careful to set clear standards and limits on certain kinds of behaviors while allowing considerable freedom within these limits.
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- Summer '16
- Abnormal Psychology