_Dictatorships share some of the advantages of absolute monarchies. _Dictatorships face serious legitimacy problems_Over time, pressure often builds to return the government to control by elected leaders_ For example, in February 2011, growing discontent led to a wave of protests in Libya, calling for an end to Gaddafi's rule. Months later, he was overthrown._With control of the military and police, the leader can put an end to political unrest and maintain peace and order●Theocracy: Rule by the Few Religious Leader_A theocracy is a government headed by religious leaders_In ancient city-states, theocracies were common, with government officials serving as religious leaders as well_ It also ensured that political decisions were in line with the people’s moral values and beliefs._As states grew larger, however, enforcing religious unity became increasingly difficult_Religious minorities were often marginalized or even persecuted_Religious warfare broke out as groups with differing beliefs fought for control of their governments._By 2007, only two theocracies existed in the world: Vatican City and Iran_Although located in the heart of Rome, Italy, it is an independent state headed by the Catholic pope_Iran changed from a monarchy to a theocracy in 1979._The most influential body in Iran’s theocracy is the 12-person Council of Guardians●Single-party State : Rule by the political Elite_In a single-party state, the constitution allows only one political party to govern._Power is exercised by the leading members of the party, who form the nation’s political elite, or a small group of people within a larger group who have more power, wealth, or talent than the others__The handful of single-party states today are mainly socialist republics, in whichthe Communist Party rules.●ADVANTAGE_ a single-party system avoids much of the political wrangling that is common in multiparty states_making it easier to pass laws and implement government policies. This party
unity comes at a cost, however●DISADVANTAGE_The views of the party elite may be very different from the interests of the people as a whole, leading to social unrest_In Vietnam, for example, the Communist Party is the only legal political party_people with differing political views or solutions to problems are often completely shut out of the political process.●Direct Democracies: Ruled by all Citizens (Everyone has a say in government)_In the direct democracy of ancient Athens, several thousand citizens met regularly as an assembly to make decisions for their city-state_Each citizen had an equal voice in public affairs, and decisions, once made, hadwidespread support.*-disadvantage- time consuming _This form of direct democracy is known as the *referendum process_Citizens may also propose laws and submit them directly to voters in what is known as the *initiative process. As much as the Swiss value their form of democracy, voter turnout is often low, because people tire of frequent elections.