According to HDSA.org, Huntington’s disease is a fatal genetic disorder that causes the progressive breakdown of nerve cells in the brain. It deteriorates a person’s physical and mental abilities during their prime working years and has no cure. HD is known as the quintessential family disease because every child of a parent with HD has a 50/50 chance of carrying the faulty gene.The onset of Huntington disease is usually between 25 and 45 years of age, when the trait may already have been passed to the person’s children. The disorder has a prevalence rate of approximately 3 to 7 per 100,000 persons and occurs in all races. 13. TBI: frontal injury, contrefrontal injury, contrecoup injury, coup injury TBI is short for traumatic brain injury in which a force is applied to the head resulting in an injury to the brain that presents a wide variety of symptoms based upon where on the head the injury occurred. These types of injuries can be difficult to diagnose and even more difficult to treat when they occur. In a frontal injury a blow to the front of the head has damaged the frontal lobe responsible for emotional control as well as our personality. This also damages the individual's motivation which may result in lethargic behavior. Planning advanced multi-step tasks such as taking a shower is difficult for the individual effected. The contrefrontal injury occurs on the opposite side of the frontal lobe. This can encompass anywhere on the back half of the head affecting many functions of the brain. This can cause various types of blindness, difficulty seeing colors, producing hallucinations, difficulty seeing movement or recognizing words, and many more symptoms based on severity and exact location of the trauma. Contrecoup and coup injuries refer to where an injury occurred in relation to the site of the injury. Coup injuries are simply the injuries to the brain that occur on the same side that the trauma was on. Both of these injuries happen together in a continuous motion with the coup injury occurring first, then the brain rebounds off of the skull where the impact occurred and
rebounds to the opposite side of the skull causing additional damage at the contrecoup site of injury. 14. Types of subdural hematoma Bleeding between the dura mater and the brain causes subdural hematoma. Acute subdural hematoma develop within 48 hours after a traumatic brain injury. They are usually located at the top of the skull, and are the result of tearing of bridging veins and the rapid expansion that forms a space-occupying lesion. The expanding clots will directly compress the brain, causing intracranial pressure to rise, and eventually compress the bleeding vein. Symptoms of acute subdural hematoma include a headache, drowsiness, restlessness/agitation, slowed cognition and confusion. Symptoms can worsen and the person may lose consciousness, experience changes in respiratory patterns, and dilation of the pupils.
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