ProQuestDocuments-2018-10-24 (2).pdf

Went so far as to say that no matter what task the

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went so far as to say that no matter what task the police are involved with, police intervention means making use of the authority and ability to overpower resistance. This ability to use force and coercion in the performance of police duties has been recognized and carefully studied over the last several decades of police research ([2] Alpert and Dunham, 1999, [3], [4] 2000, 2004; [5] Bazley et al. , 2007; [13] Garner et al. , 2002; [29] Reiss, 1971; [31] Scharf and Binder, 1983; [32] Sherman, 1980; [46] Walker and Fridell, 1993). It is important to understand and define force in the framework of law enforcement. Force can be defined as the "exertion of power to compel or restrain the behavior of others" ([19] Kania and Mackey, 1977, p. 29) or when used in the context of policing, "acts that threaten or inflict physical harm on suspects" ([40] Terrill, 2003, p. 56). However, finding a uniform definition regarding police levels of force and what amounts to reasonable force in a police encounter is not as clear. While deadly force, or the application of force likely to cause great bodily injury or death ([10] Fyfe, 1988; [27] Patrick and Hall, 2005; [37] Stock et al. , 1998), may be fairly simple to identify, measuring and defining other types of police force is not so easy ([4] Alpert and Dunham, 2004). The literature defines "non-deadly force", "non-lethal force", or "less-than-lethal force" as the application of force that is not likely to result in death or serious bodily injury ([20] Klinger, 1995; [26] Pate and Fridell, 1993). Included as non-lethal force, "physical force" implies the touching, prodding, redirection, come-along techniques, or physical manipulation of a subject to comply with demands ([12] Garner et al. , 1996), whereas "non-physical force" implies the use of PDF GENERATED BY SEARCH.PROQUEST.COM Page 2 of 18
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threats or other verbalization techniques to gain compliance ([7] Clede, 1987; [40] Terrill, 2003). A review of the literature reveals that there are numerous accepted ways to gather information about police use of force. These include examinations of agency policy ([25] National Institute of Justice, 1999), observational accounts of police force incidents ([20] Klinger, 1995; [40] Terrill, 2003, [41] 2005; [44] Terrill and Mastrofski, 2002), analysis of official police records and use-of-force reports ([24] Morabito and Doerner, 1997; [30] Ross, 1999), citizen complaints about the use of force ([8] Cao, 1999; [18] Hickman, 2006; [22] McCluskey and Terrill, 2005), and surveys of police officers or arrested persons ([11] Garner and Maxwell, 1999; [12] Garner et al. , 1996; [26] Pate and Fridell, 1993). While each type of data collection has strengths and weaknesses, the review of police records may have certain advantages over other categories. [13] Garner et al. (2002) explain that this type of review provides more organized data on more use of force incidents than do interpretations of police work through observations. Additionally, review of police report data provides a wider view of police behavior over the studied jurisdictions than can normally be captured through observational accounts. Use of force reports may also provide a more consistent data collection strategy ([41] Terrill, 2005) than observational studies. A major weakness,
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