women prior fractures history of falls and family history of fragility

Women prior fractures history of falls and family

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women, prior fractures, history of falls, and family history of fragility fractures Significant risk factors: low bone mineral density Modifiable risk factors: poor nutrition, lack of physical exercise, use of alcohol and tobacco and being overweight Use of certain medications can contribute e.g. corticosteroids > Prevention of Osteoporosis Effects of caffeine on bone health is controversial Most recent finding – healthy adult not at risk if they limit intake to 400mg If person is drinking more than 4 cups of coffee daily, they should add a glass of milk for each cup of coffee
18 Exam: April 12, 2019 Vitamin D and calcium important dietary elements for bone health Osteoporosis Canada recommends 400-1000 IU of Vitamin D for adults 19-50 & 800-2000 IU for adults over 50 “pediatric disease with geriatric consequence” o Falls prevention o Osteoarthritis Involve inflammation of joints – destruction of cartilage that protects ends of bones One in every 6 Canadians older than 15 y/o have it Most common Pain, stiffness and reduced movement Cannot be prevented as it is a normal part of aging – things can be done to slow progress and hold symptoms at bay Maintain healthy weight Education can raise awareness that occupation-related & sport-related overuse of joints can contribute Key Changes from 2002 to 2010 Higher daily vitamin D supplementation o 400-1000 IU for individuals < 50 years o 800-2000 IU for individuals > 50 years Lower daily calcium intake: 1200mg Screening Osteoporosis is the only MSD for which screening is recommended Recommended for all postmenopausal women and men over 50 years of age Screening tool Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) created by W.H.O – predict 10-year probability that a person will have major osteoporotic fracture Fall Prevention Fall prevention has become a major movement in health promotion across Canada 1. Biological & medical risk factors (10) Muscle weakness/Reduced physical fitness Advanced age Gender Impaired control of balance and gait Vision conditions Chronic diseases or conditions (arthritis, stroke, Parkinson’s, hypotension) Physical disabilities Acute illness (loss in bone density from even short periods of inactivity) Cognitive impairment Depression 2. Behavioural risk factors (7) History of previous falls Certain medications and polypharmacy Excessive consumption of alcohol Choice of footwear and clothing Inactivity and inadequate nutrition Fear of falling 3. Environmental risk factors (4)
19 Exam: April 12, 2019 Stairs Elements around home or in long-term care Factors in the public environment Assistive devices that are not properly maintained 4. Socioeconomic risk factors (4) Well-established determinants of health How to they increase the risk for falls? o Income o Education o Housing o Social connectedness
20 Exam: April 12, 2019 Nervous System Detection of change in neurological status, particularly acute and life-threatening alterations Localize pathology Subjective Data Collection Screening questions o Demographic data o History of neurological conditions o

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