line and show that these modified cells contribute extensively to the somatic and germ-cell lineages in chimaeric mice. Compared with current methods for manipulation of the mouse genome, this approach has the advantage that powerful somatic-cell genetic techniques can be used to modify and to select cells with germ-line potential, allowing the derivation of transgenic strains with pre-determined genetic changes. We have by this means inserted many proviral vector sequences that provide new chromosomal molecular markers for linkage studies in the mouse and that also may cause insertional mutations. Cells containing integrated retrovirus could be transmitted through the germ line
6 Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1986 Dec;83(23):9065-9 Transgenesis by means of blastocyst-derived embryonic stem cell lines.Gossler A, Doetschman T, Korn R, Serfling E, Kemler R.This study demonstrates that blastocyst-derived embryonic stem cells (ES cells) can be used as a vehicle for transgenesis. The method is nearly as efficient as other methods, and the introduced neomycin phosphotransferase (neo) gene is stably transmitted through several generations with no apparent loss in G418 resistance. An important factor contributing to the efficiency of this process is the rigorous selection, before blastocyst injection, of genetically transformed cells for in vitro developmental pluripotency. One of the advantages of the ES cell route to transgenesis is that it provides investigators with the opportunity to screen for the desired genetic alterations before reintroducing the ES cells into the animal. Cells containing neoR gene could be transmitted through the germ line Nature 1987 Mar 19-25;326(6110):292-5 HPRT-deficient (Lesch-Nyhan) mouse embryos derived from germline colonization by cultured cells.Hooper M, Hardy K, Handyside A, Hunter S, Monk M.Embryonal stem (ES) cell lines, established in culture from peri-implantation mouse blastocysts, can colonize both the somatic and germ-cell lineages of chimaeric mice following injection into host blastocysts. Recently, ES cells with multiple integrations of retroviral sequences have been used to introduce these sequences into the germ-line of chimaeric mice, demonstrating an alternative to the microinjection of fertilized eggs for the production of transgenic mice. However, the properties of ES cells raise a unique possibility: that of using the techniques of somatic cell genetics to select cells with genetic modifications such as recessive mutations, and of introducing these mutations into the mouse germ line. Here we report the realization of this possibility by the selection in vitro of variant ES cells deficient in hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT; EC 22.214.171.124), their use to produce germline chimaeras resulting in female offspring heterozygous for HPRT-deficiency, and the generation of HPRT-deficient preimplantation embryos from these females. In human males, HPRT deficiency causes Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, which is characterized by mental retardation and self-mutilation.