Ego. One of the three components of Freudian personality development. The ego isreferred to as the executive or rational part of the personality, and it acts to keep the idin check.Electra Complex. This occurs at the beginning of the phallic stage (around ages 3 to 6)in which a girl develops a desire to possess her father and a hatred and fear of her mother.Freudian. This view of behavior focuses on early childhood development. It claims thatcriminal activity is the result of a conflict between the id, ego, and superego, which canbe traced back to a conflict in early childhood.Id. One of the three components of Freudian personality development. The idcontains basic instincts and drives, such as the need for food, water, sex, andpleasure.Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). A test designed to usedifferent scales of questions to measure abnormal personality traits, such as depression,hysteria, paranoia, psychopathology, and compulsiveness.Oedipus Complex. This occurs at the beginning of the phallic stage (around ages 3to 6) in which a boy develops a desire to possess his mother and a hatred and fear ofhis father.Personality Theory. This theory believes that criminal activity is the result of adefective, deviant, or inadequate personality. Examples of deviant personality traitsinclude hostility, impulsiveness, aggression, and sensation-seeking.Psychoanalytic Theory. A general perspective stating that the causes of criminalbehavior can be found in the mind of the individual.Psychological Counseling. The process by which an underlying mental issue can beaddressed. The assumptions are that only by treating an individual who has committeda criminal act as someone who is sick and in need of treatment can the problem truly beaddressed; punishing the criminal act without addressing the root mental cause is oflittle or no value; and counseling is the only way in which the root mental cause can bedealt with adequately.Psychological Theory. A general perspective that looks to the psychologicalfunctioning, development, and adjustment of an individual in explaining criminal ordeviant acts. Under this approach, the criminal act itself is important only in that ithighlights an underlying mental issue.