Two nerves in series out to the effector diii Skeletal muscle is the effector

Two nerves in series out to the effector diii

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Two nerves in series out to the effector d.iii.Skeletal muscle is the effector muscle of the system d.iv.Spinal cord nerves are all mixed nervesd.v.Ventral root – motor efferent fibersd.vi.Dorsal –root – sensory afferent fibersd.vii.Ventral root + dorsal root = spinal nervee.Autonomic Nervous System e.i.Parasympathetic and sympathetic division e.ii.Pre ganglion e.ii.1.Autonomic nerves before the ganglion e.iii.Parasympathetic is responsible for rest and digest e.iv.Sympathetic is responsible for flight or flight response e.v.Epinephorine (adrenaline) and norepinephorine  somatic nervous systeme.v.1.Adrenalinee.v.2.Molecules that excite you e.vi.Norepinephorine is released from post ganglionic sympathetic nerves  Norepinephorine and ACH – can be excitatory or inhibitory – depends on the receptore.vii.ACH is released from the post ganglionic parasympathetic nerves
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ACH is dripped on the SA node (pace maker) of the heart to reduce the beat from 120/min to 70/mina.i.Parasympathic and sympathic a.i.1.Axons synapse with post ganglionic nerves a.i.2.Post ganglionic will send its axon on and then it will go to the effector depending on what it isa.i.3.Pre ganglionic axon is longer for the parasympathic than sympathic a.i.4.Post ganglionic axon is longer for sympathic than parasympathic a.i.5.Pre ganglionic nerve secretes acetylcholine from both (PNS and SNS)a.i.5.a. They all have same receptors as skeletal muscles, nicotintic receptors (ionotropic receptors – channel for ions when ligand binds to them – i.e. ligand gates sodium channels)a.i.5.b. PNS – ACH released from post ganglionic cells binds to metabotropic ( g-protein coupled receptors)a.i.5.c. SNS – norephinephrine released from post ganglionic cells binds adergenic receptors ( a-g protein coupled receptors)a.i.6.Post ganglionic secrete epinephrine a.i.7.Post ganglionically, sympathic, norepinephrine a.i.8.Post ganglionically, parasympathic, acetylcholine a.i.9.Adrenal medulla a.i.9.a. Epinephrine comes from it a.i.9.b. A gland that is sitting on top of the kidney a.i.9.c. Sympathic nerve synapses with some cells to secrete epinephrine a.i.9.d. Chromaffin a.i.9.d.i.Modified post ganglionic sympathic nerves
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a.i.10. Parasympathic ( aka cranialsacral NS)“rest and digest” a.i.10.a.Gets you back to homeostasis a.i.11. Sympathic ( thoricalumbar NS)“fight or flight response” a.i.11.a.Drives you away from homeostasis -sympathetic chain ganglia (paravertebral ganglia)- preganglionic cells end here and synapse and post ganglionic axons come out-prevertebral ganglia (collateral ganglia)-parasympathetic ganglia –( terminal ganglia)a.ii.Enteric Division a.ii.1.A bunch of nerve fibers we find in the G.I. tract a.ii.2.More nerve fibers than your spinal cord a.ii.3.“the little brain in the gut” a.ii.4.Plexus is a network of something a.ii.5.Submucosal plexus (meissner’s plexus)a.ii.5.a.Handles the glands in the G.I. tract a.ii.6.Myenteric plexus (auerbach’s plexus)a.ii.6.a.Controls the smooth muscle contractions
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