Department of education noted that they were aware of

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Department of Education noted that they were “aware of student enrollment practices that may chill or discourage the participation , or lead to the exclusion , of students based on their or their parents’ or guardians’ actual or perceived citizenship or immigration status .”43 Despite federal involvement in some areas, education in the United States is decentralized and highly localized . States and local authorities retain power
and oversight over education within their jurisdiction .44 The division of duties , oversight , and control within each state and territory can vary greatly , and depends upon the constitution, regulations, and statutes of the particular area.45 With the continuing growth and movement of immigrant families and children, the obstacles undocumented children face when trying to access education is a pressing area of concern . Although there has been substantial research conducted about the arrival of children in the United States and the conditions of detention upon arrival, much less is known about children’s access to education once they settle into communities throughout the United States. Specifically, ICE raids and lack of guidance to schools are creating a chilling effect on undocumented students now Booi et al 16 (Zenande, with Caitlin Callahan, Genevieve Fugere, Mikaela Harris, Alexandra Hughes, Alexander Kramarczuk, Caroline Kurtz, Raimy Reyes, and Sruti Swaminathan, Georgetown Law Human Rights Institute Fact-Finding Project. “Ensuring Every Undocumented Student Succeeds,” - institute/events/upload/2015-16-HRI-Fact-Finding-Report.PDF , vm) In January 2016, Immigration and Customs Enforcement ( ICE ) initiated a series of immigration enforcement operations targeting recent arrivals from Central America .248 The operations are part of an effort by President Obama’s Administration to detain and deport adults and children who arrived as part of the 2014 increase of children and families arriving at the U.S. southern border.249 Although ICE asserts that it only targets adults and children who have received orders to be removed from the U.S. and who have exhausted all their legal remedies,250 some advocates have identified cases in which targeted families still had possible remedies.251 The first wave of enforcement actions occurred the weekend of January 2, 2016. By Monday, January 4, ICE officers had apprehended and detained over 100 individuals to be deported, primarily from Georgia, North Carolina, and Texas.252 The agency has since instituted a complimentary program to expedite apprehensions called “Operation Border Guardian.”253 Under the new Operation, ICE specifically targets individuals who came to the U.S. as unaccompanied minors prior to January 1, 2014 but who are now eighteen or older.254 As of March 9, the Operation had already netted 336 individuals to deport.255 These operations are causing widespread fear and panic throughout immigrant communities across the nation that is severely disrupting peoples’ day-to-day lives.256 Our research documented that

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