Either in a room 20 by 30 feet or in one 8 by 12 feet

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Either in a room 20 by 30 feet or in one 8 by 12 feet Compared with those in the large room Those densely packed had higher pulse rates and blood pressure indicating arousal - Why are we aroused by others’ presence? o Mere presence (Zajonc, 1966) Produces some arousal even without evaluation apprehension or arousing distraction If social arousal facilitates dominant responses
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Boost performance on easy tasks correct response is dominant Hurt performance on difficult tasks incorrect response is dominant o Evaluation apprehension (Cottrell, 1968; Henchy & Glass, 1968) Concern for how others are evaluating us Not the mere presence of others that increases individual activation / arousal Rather the fear of being evaluated by an audience Cottrell and his associates (1968) Blindfolded observers, supposedly in preparation for a perception experiment In contrast to the effect of the watching audience Mere presence of these blindfolded people did not boost well-practiced responses Enhancement of dominant responses is strongest When people think they are being evaluated Self-consciousness we feel when being evaluated Interferes with behaviors that we perform best automatically (Mullen & Baumeister, 1987) o Driven by distraction (Sanders, Baron & Moore, 1986) People are distracted by presence of others When we wonder how co-actors are doing How an audience is reacting Competing responses conflict Paying attention to others vs paying attention to the task Overloads our cognitive system creates tension / arousal Distraction alone should be sufficient to cause so-called social facilitation Social loafing: Do individuals exert less effort in a group? - Tendency for people to exert less effort o When they pool their efforts toward a common goal o Than when they are individually accountable - Trying less hard when working collectively than when working coactively (or individually) - Ringelmann effect (Ringelmann, 1913) o Found that the collective effort of tug-of-war teams was half the sum of the individual efforts o Although more men pulled harder on a rope than fewer men did o There was a substantial process loss in comparison with what would have been expected on the basis of their individual performances o Group members may actually be less motivated when performing additive tasks
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o Poor performance stemmed from poor coordination - Ingham (1974) o Making individuals think others were pulling with them When in fact they were pulling alone o Blindfolded participants were assigned the first position in the apparatus and told, “Pull as hard as you can” o They pulled 18% harder When they knew they were pulling alone Than when they believed that behind them two to five people were also pulling - Social loafing (type of process loss) has been found o On variety of tasks clapping, cheering o In different cultures Particularly by assessing agricultural output in formerly communist countries e.g. Russia, China
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