Throughout the country increased over the same period

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throughout the country increased over the same period a year ago, much of this can be ascribed to increased International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) activity…. The Afghan insurgency has a robust means of sustaining its operations. Small arms weapons and ammunition are readily available throughout the region, in addition to sources of Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) and home-made explosive materials and technology."15US Department of Defense in its 2012 semi-annual report to Congress painted a cautiously optimistic picture of security situation in Afghanistan in these words,"The year 2011 saw the first year-over-year decline in nationwide enemy-initiated attacks in five years. These trends have continued in 2012. The performance of the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) and the close partnership between the ANSF and ISAF have been keys to this success… Despite these and other positive trends during the reporting period, the campaign also continued to face both long-term and acute challenges…. The insurgency remains a resilient and determined enemy and will likely attempt to regain lost ground and influence"16
Dr. Raja Muhammad KhanMargalla Papers 201273The spectacular attacks in Kabul on high value targets signify the fact that level of violence had not been contained to a low-scale and ISAF have not been able to create conditions on ground conducive for security in Afghanistan. The mounting civilian casualties within Afghanistan, partly due to infamous night raids by ISAF, remain one of the contributory factors that promote and add to the wave of violence in Afghanistan. Attacking peaceful ceremonies, resulting in killing of innocent civilians, women and children, disgracing the Afghan dead bodies through urination and desecration of Holy Quran17are some of very provocative acts, undertaken by the personnel of ISAF and such acts catalyze the growing wave of violence in Afghanistan.Political Process in AfghanistanThe increase in insurgent violence in Afghanistan can partly be attributed to failure of US in bringing the Taliban and other insurgent leaders to the negotiating table. In Bonn Conference on Afghanistan in December 2001, Taliban and Pashtun representatives were left out, whereas, small groups were made part of the conference and later in interim Afghan government. Out of total expenditures of $550 billion in Afghanistan by ISAF and US, only $89 billion were spent for Afghan rebuilding, with bulk spent on ANA/ANP.18Qatar peace process and other negotiations between Taliban and US, initiated some time back, did not makeheadway. Both parties are blaming each other for being inflexible in their demands. Analysts view that the peace process has little prospects of success unless there is a degree of trust and confidence amongst the Taliban that US will deliver on its promises and commitments. Another drawback with these negotiations was that, only selected individuals and less important/isolated groups of Taliban or Haqqani Group

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