Eventually under the careful direction of the leader the discussion might start

Eventually under the careful direction of the leader

This preview shows page 49 - 53 out of 66 pages.

of play leads to the greatest enjoyment. Eventually under the careful direction of the leader the discussion might start to focus on what kind of new toys children would find most enjoyable. Retroduction Involves changing an assumption. By changing an assumption individuals might gain a valuable new perspective of looking at things from a different angle. Einstein revised Newtons’ assumption that space is flat to the assumption that space is curved and developed new perspective on time and space. One such technique could be say suppose X were Y suppose secretaries were accountants. Another way of asking what if eg. What if space had only two dimensions. By asking such questions individuals can develop innovative ideas which can help an organization introduce a new change on the products or procedures.
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50 Review question a) Differentiate between innovation and creativity? b) Describe the stages involved in an innovation process? c) Outline the role of innovation in enterprise growth?
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51 CHAPTER SIX ORGANIZATION DESIGN FOR BUSINESS GROWTH Meaning of organization design Organization design refers to the overall configuration of positions and interrelationships among positions within the organization. Design therefore mainly refers to how an organization is structured i.e. how tasks, power and control are distributed within the organization, and how communication is effected. An organization's design is usually represented through the organizational chart. A chart can show several things at a glance. For example, the levels of management, the reporting relationships and existence of any staff positions. Charts however cannot capture the complex dynamics of many organizations especially the large ones. An organization's design can be affected by several contingencies, these include size, technology and environment. Relative to larger organizations smaller organizations tend to be less specialized, less standardized, and more centralized. Technology refers to the set of conversion processes used by an organization to transform inputs into outputs. Unit or small batch technology seem to be more effective for system 4 organization designs, whereas large batch and mass production technologies seem to be more effective when system 1 designs are used. Environmental uncertainty is accounted for by the rate of change and the degree of complexity. When they are high, uncertainty is high and when they are low uncertainty is reduced. System organizations seem to work relatively well when environmental uncertainties are low and system 4 designs seem to work better when environmental uncertainty is high. By the end of this chapter the learner should be able to: a) Explain the various types of organization structures b) Explain the role of organization structure in business growth
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52 Organization Design and Organizational Chart The organization design is best represented by an organization chart. Each box in a chart represents a management position within the firm and each line represents the nature of the relationships between positions. Broken lines show staff relationships.
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