Ended with the splitting off of paediatrics 1891 and

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ended with the splitting off of paediatrics (1891) and gynaecology, fi rst as a lecture- ship (1884) and later as a chair (1892). The most remarkable aspect of this speci fi c medical discipline was its exceptionally early introduction at the University of Hel- sinki in 1784 and its integration into a common degree in medicine, as mentioned earlier. While at many other European institutions the (allegedly inferior) art of obstetrics was for some time separated from the universities and left entirely to mid- wives, in Finland a close collaboration between the university and special schools for midwives had existed since the beginning of the nineteenth century. 71 Midwives were educated by the same professors and in the same facilities where medical students received their obstetric training, and well-known professors such as Carl 69 See Torgny T. Segerstedt, Universitetet i Uppsala 1852 till 1977 , Uppsala stads historia, no. VI, 2 (Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1983), 22 32. 70 Veli-Matti Autio, Yliopiston virkanimitykset. Hallinto- ja oppihistoriallinen tutkimus Turun Akatemian ja Keisarillisen Aleksanterin-yliopiston opettajien nimityksistä Venäjän vallan alkupuolella 1809-1852 [Appointment Procedures at the Academy of Turku and the Imperial Alexander University, from the Beginning of Russian Domination 1809-1852] , Historiallisia tutkimuksia, no. 115 (Helsinki: Suomen Historiallinen Seura, 1981). 71 Jean Donnison, Midwives and Medical Men: A History of the Struggle for the Control of Childbirth , 2nd ed. (New Barnet, Herts: Historical Publications, 1988) and Marius Jan van Lieburg and Hilary Marland, Midwife Regulation, Education and Practice in the Nether- lands During the Nineteenth Century, Medical History 33 (1989): 296 317. Paedagogica Historica 707 Downloaded by [University of Eastern Finland] at 06:03 16 October 2012
Daniel von Haartman (1792 1877) did not consider themselves above writing man- uals for midwives. 72 A second striking characteristic of the fi eld of obstetrics and gynaecology was the remarkably varied international background of many of its representatives. Haartman himself had studied and worked as a physician in London, Edinburgh and Stockholm far from common in the period around 1815. 73 One of his succes- sors, Josef A.J. Pippingsköld (1825 1892), became famous for his early receptive- ness to the ideas of the Hungarian professor Ignaz Semmelweis (1818 1865). Semmelweis was fi rst to document the need for clean hands in medical praxis, and particularly in the prevention of puerperal fever. His Finnish colleague Pippingsköld was struck by a huge difference in mortality rate between deliveries in the country- side, given the clean environment of the sauna with its plentiful supply of boiled water, and deliveries in the maternity ward. Following the introduction of simple measures, such as forcing his personnel to wear clean dresses, paying great care to blankets and cushions, heating instruments before use, and so on, improved results were immediately visible; when a new lying-in hospital was opened in 1878, Pip- pingsköld got the opportunity to realise his plans completely.

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