ended with the splitting off of paediatrics (1891) and gynaecology,first as a lecture-ship (1884) and later as a chair (1892). The most remarkable aspect of this specificmedical discipline was its exceptionally early introduction at the University of Hel-sinki in 1784 and its integration into a common degree in medicine, as mentionedearlier. While at many other European institutions the (allegedly inferior) art ofobstetrics was for some time separated from the universities and left entirely to mid-wives, in Finland a close collaboration between the university and special schoolsfor midwives had existed since the beginning of the nineteenth century.71Midwiveswere educated by the same professors and in the same facilities where medicalstudents received their obstetric training, and well-known professors such as Carl69See Torgny T. Segerstedt,Universitetet i Uppsala 1852 till 1977, Uppsala stads historia,no. VI, 2 (Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1983), 22–32.70Veli-Matti Autio,Yliopiston virkanimitykset. Hallinto- ja oppihistoriallinen tutkimus TurunAkatemian ja Keisarillisen Aleksanterin-yliopiston opettajien nimityksistä Venäjän vallanalkupuolella 1809-1852 [Appointment Procedures at the Academy of Turku and the ImperialAlexander University, from the Beginning of Russian Domination 1809-1852], Historiallisiatutkimuksia, no. 115 (Helsinki: Suomen Historiallinen Seura, 1981).71Jean Donnison,Midwives and Medical Men: A History of the Struggle for the Control ofChildbirth, 2nd ed. (New Barnet, Herts: Historical Publications, 1988) and Marius Jan vanLieburg and Hilary Marland,“Midwife Regulation, Education and Practice in the Nether-lands During the Nineteenth Century,”Medical History33 (1989): 296–317.Paedagogica Historica707Downloaded by [University of Eastern Finland] at 06:03 16 October 2012
Daniel von Haartman (1792–1877) did not consider themselves above writing man-uals for midwives.72A second striking characteristic of thefield of obstetrics and gynaecology wasthe remarkably varied international background of many of its representatives.Haartman himself had studied and worked as a physician in London, Edinburghand Stockholm–far from common in the period around 1815.73One of his succes-sors, Josef A.J. Pippingsköld (1825–1892), became famous for his early receptive-ness to the ideas of the Hungarian professor Ignaz Semmelweis (1818–1865).Semmelweis wasfirst to document the need for clean hands in medical praxis, andparticularly in the prevention of puerperal fever. His Finnish colleague Pippingsköldwas struck by a huge difference in mortality rate between deliveries in the country-side, given the clean environment of the sauna with its plentiful supply of boiledwater, and deliveries in the maternity ward. Following the introduction of simplemeasures, such as forcing his personnel to wear clean dresses, paying great care toblankets and cushions, heating instruments before use, and so on, improved resultswere immediately visible; when a new lying-in hospital was opened in 1878, Pip-pingsköld got the opportunity to realise his plans completely.