In 4 the direct object NP some hiusmuotoiluvaahto some hair styling mousse is

In 4 the direct object np some hiusmuotoiluvaahto

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case-assigning verbs. In (4) the direct object NP some hiusmuotoiluvaahto "some hair styling mousse" is governed and assignedcase by the English verb get; therefore we find the English language-carrying determiner some. The same applies to (5): thelanguage of the case-assigning verb put needs to match the language of the determiner (that) in the NP to which it assigns case.In (6), within the prepositional phrase in the eteinen "in the hall" the object of the preposition the eteinen has a functionalelement (the determiner the) from English to serve as the language-carrying element to tie the object of the preposition to thelanguage of its governing preposition in (in other words, in and the need to match; eteinen can come from Finnish). Sentence (7) is an example of a switched adjunct tässä vaiheessa "at this point." Since adjuncts are not governed by any sentential elements from outside their own phrasal boundaries, this adjunct, for instance, does not have to include any English elements; it can be monolingually Finnish. The above-described syntactic tendency is a strong one. It means that we can talk in terms of "acceptable" and "unacceptable" codeswitches in the same way that we can talk about acceptable and unacceptable structures in ordinary monolingual discourse. Thus sentence (3) above could not, we claim, have the Finnish word neulankärki ("needle point") without the English article: (3') * Neulankärki is nowhere near the tooth. "Needle point" and sentence (4) could not be in the following form (4') *... could you get me vähän hiusmuotoiluvaahtoa ? "some hair styling mousse" with a Finnish determiner-like element vähän as opposed to the English one (some), since the language of vähän would not "match" with the language of the English case-assigning verb get. This, we believe, is because codeswitching has its roots in Universal Grammar (UG) and we claim that UG regulates, to a great extent, bilingual sentence production (2) . This leads to an overall impression of a matrix language and accounts for the fact that the bilingual sentences of our subjects, for instance, whom no-one has taught to codeswitch and whom the Atlantic Ocean separates, follow the same syntactic patterns (3) . If Universal Grammar sets the deep abstract principles of language (e.g. Chomsky 1988), it should also play a role in bilingual competence - as reflected in bilingual language production. However, while many similarities in bilingual sentences can be accounted for by the adherence of these sentences to the principles of Universal Grammar, we claim that bilingual sentences also reflect another strong tendency. This tendendy is dictated by the universally shared need in all speakers to look for the best possible expressions to match the meanings to be conveyed. 4 THE ROLE OF THE NEED FOR EFFICIENT COMMUNICATION While bilinguals are to a great extent guided and even constrained by the principles of language switching that find their origin in Universal Grammar, we argue that in addition to grammatical principles as regulators of monolingual as well as bilingual
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