DSST Principles of Supervision

Positive reinforcement give a consequence that will

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Positive reinforcement – give a consequence that will encourage the behavior to be repeated. (LOA) Negative reinforcement – remove an unpleasant consequence, such as taking a worker off probation. Punishment – give an unpleasant consequence, such as criticizing an employee or assigning work Extinction – fail to give a reinforcing consequence by not complimenting an employee.  Control – Bureaucratic control systems. 1) Setting performance standards 2) Measuring performance 3) Comparing performance with the standard 4) Taking corrective action Bureaucratic Control Approaches Feedforward – preventing Concurrent- directing, monitoring, and modifying ongoing activities Feedback – end results. Internal Ethics Programs (Corporate, Building, Organization, etc…) – Established in house to prevent bad ethics. There are two types 1.Compliance-based – Prevent, expose, and discipline violations. 2.Integrity-based – instill personal and ethical responsibility among employees. Corporate Social Responsibility – obligations that a business has toward society Economic – produce goods that are desired / profitable Legal – obey law Ethical – meet society’s moral expectations Philanthropic – participate in desirable behaviors  (charities/volunteering) Socio-capitalism – blend profit with social responsibilities! (Wal-Mart donates to the poor!?) Internal environment – Employees, office layout, management style, and bonus systems. A strong organizational culture benefits a business by encouraging employee loyalty and cooperation. Dominant culture prevents change? Problematic! External Environment – Factors outside of an organization that have direct/indirect effects on the org. Direct – Suppliers, competitors, customers (immediate and daily influence on a business, also known as the competitive environment) Final consumer – Purchases products in their completed form Intermediate consumer – buys raw materials or wholesale products and then sells the product to final consumers. Indirect – Legal, political, economic, technological, social-cultural, and global (General influences on a business, also known as macroenvironment) Energy sources, INTL trade agreements, exchange rates, cultural environments, global factors, technology, television, software, medical devices, robotics, and  transportation are indirect influences. Regulators – power to investigate businesses. (OSHA, FAA, EPA, SEC FDA) Caux Principles – Show concern for human dignity and work for the common good.  Sarbanes-Oxley Act – Enacted in 2002 because of Enron and WorldCom scandals. Sets strict accounting and reporting rules that make top-level managers more  accountable in an attempt to promote ethical behavior within public companies.
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  • Winter '12
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  • Management, bureaucratic control, power – leader

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