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Themselves ambitious with the more extreme

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themselves ambitious, with the more extreme respondents being keen to work autonomously, taking personal responsibility for their actions. Hines noted the adherence to codes of ethical standards in traditional professions such as medicine and law, and referred to the view of some that management is “a second-class profession for second-class people” (Rossel, 1972, cited in Hines, 1973 ). The managers in Hines’ study, however, were almost unanimous in describing the New Zealand manager as being ethical in business practice, and only 21% believed that formal ethical standards should be adopted. This view is supported by Inkson’s interviews of managers. He noted that "where ethics were referred to [bosses] were seen totally by subordinates in favourable terms" (1974, p. 25). Hines based his findings on a large scientific survey; a review of articles in Management, the official journal of the New Zealand Institute of Management during the year he published his book provides additional insight into the preferred leadership style and methods of managers in 1973. There are some immediately obvious differences between the 1973 and the 1998 volumes of the magazine, with the issue of gender roles being particularly prominent. The male pronoun is intrusive in almost every 1973 article. Beyond mere grammatical convenience, most articles assume the manager really is male (eg by claiming, (as Clapcott, 1973, p. 13 does), that we all know of “the executive’s wife who has gone, tearfully, to the managing director begging him to prevent long, late-night working in the office”). Perhaps this assumption was valid at the time – all of the 100 photographs of managers in the ‘Appointments’ section during 1973 were of men. By contrast, around 25% of the photographs during 1998 were of women managers.
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30 In reviewing the 1973 volume for insights into leadership, one of the most revealing findings is the paucity of information. Not one of the feature articles included the word ‘leadership’ in its title. The articles coming closest to addressing leadership were a series on Management by Objectives by an American consultant, recently settled in New Zealand (Mordka, 1973a, b), and an article on delegation principles (Harris, 1973). Articles on productivity improvement, safety, marketing and other functional topics were most prevalent, perhaps reflecting the comparative strength of the manufacturing sector at the time. This is consistent with the finding of Place (1971) cited by Hines (1973) that New Zealand business magazines in the early 1970s gave very little emphasis to ‘industrial psychology’ topics. Ransom (1973) decried the “abysmal lack of knowledge about management of New Zealand companies”. Hume, (1973) studied the recruitment and selection practices of Auckland employers. The interviewees in her sample appeared unable to articulate the set of personal qualities (over and above more objective requirements of experience and qualifications) necessary for success in management roles. During 1973 the University of Auckland
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