the labor market: children, people with disabilities, and the elderly “Economic growth is the ultimate cause of welfare state development” The neo-Marxist theory is concerned with explaining the contradictions between formal legal equality and social class equality o Specifically, when private property is held by a small section of the population, the democratic impulse (the wishes of the masses) might be to confiscate that property The welfare state is seen as the mediator of class conflict, granting concessions to both capitalists and workers To serve the interests of the rich owners of the means of production, the welfare state “buys off” the workers by providing necessities and a degree of economic security State-centered approaches emphasize the role of state bureaucrats in formulating welfare state policies State bureaucrats are solely or primarily responsible for creating or modifying social policy o They also may play a role in drafting the budgets for other projects, providing further social policy recommendations and influencing the outcomes of policy proposals Citizenship rights : the rights guaranteed to each law-abiding citizen in a nation-state: civil rights, political rights, and social rights Civil rights: the rights guaranteeing a citizen’s personal freedom from interference, including freedom of speech and the right to travel safely R V CHAPTER 15: AUTHORITY AND THE STATE
Political rights: the rights guaranteeing a citizen’s ability to participate in politics, including the right to vote and the right to hold an elected office Social rights: the rights guaranteeing a citizen’s protection by the state Social rights to public assistance maybe be of two broad types: o 1. The right to contributory programs, such as Social Security benefits in the US. To be eligible for these programs, “citizens earn their rights through tax contributions” o 2. Rights to means-tested programs are subject to changes in how states define the concept of the “deserving poor” In 1996, President Clinton signed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act , which drastically shortened the maximum allowable time during which citizens could claim welfare benefits o Because of these changes, the “deserving poor” no longer included those who weren’t disabled yet were chronically unemployed Radical Power and Persuasion Weber implies that where there is power, there must be resistance Steven Lukes suggests that power may be “at its most effective when at least observable”; in such a situation, it may not generate resistance at all o He describes power as three-dimensional: 1. Power is visible when different agendas clash, conflict results, and one side prevails 2. When the power is so formidable that no conflict results from competing interests because one side is convinced it’s a losing battle 3. The power not only to persevere despite overt or veiled resistance,
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- Spring '08