25. ______________is sentencing that includes a range of years that will be potentially served by the offender. *a. indeterminate sentencingb. determinate sentencingc. indefinite sentencingd. undefined 26. _____________is sentencing that consists of fixed periods of incarceration imposed on the offender with no later flexibility in the term that is served 27. ________________is intended to cause vicarious learning whereby observers see that offenders are punished for a given crime, thus discouraging others from committing crime due to fear of punishment
28. According to the text, Alexander Maconochie was probably too far ahead of his time. 29. The "neck verse" refers to Psalm 41 of the Christian Bible. a. True*b. False 30. According to the text, the perceptions that people have of community corrections have a direct impact on how effective community-based programs are likely to be. 31. The case of Commonwealth v. Chase(1830) determined that probation is a form of leniency. 32. The practice of "binding over" was an early version of being released on recognizance. 33. John Augustus is known as the father of modern parole. a. True*b. False 34. Banishment was widely used in England during the 1600's and 1700's. 35. The "mark system" allowed for marks to be earned by the convict for each day of successful toil.
36. Maconochie's system is considered indeterminate in nature, with convicts progressing through five specific phases of classification. 37. With indeterminate sentencing, the offender is released during some point in the range of years that are assigned by the sentencing judge. *a. Trueb. False 38. Alexander Maconochie has been dubbed the father of parole. 39. According to the text, it is accurate to say that community corrections approaches were initially implemented due to a need to lessen the burden on jails and prisons. 40. Cesare Beccaria is considered to be the father of classical criminology. 41. According to the author, community corrections includes all non-incarcerating correctional sanctions imposed upon an offender for the purposes of reintegrating that offender within the community. *a. Trueb. False
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